Understanding the Medium meaning and how it works can be tricky when it is sometimes looked upon as a paranormal phenomenon. Whether you are sitting face to face with a Medium, speaking to Mediums online or on the phone with a Medium – Spiritual Medium readings work in exactly the same way on all accounts. Although it may sound impossible for a Psychic Medium to connect over the phone, it often can result in a more beneficial reading than face to face. Phone Mediums believe this may be because there is no outside distraction, because they can focus purely on connecting with the person on the phone, and then linking with the spirit world. Online Mediums work from the comfort of their own home and before they start their readings, they will usually spend time meditating and opening up their psychic abilities, so that they are spiritually connected and ready to give their readings. As TheCircle Mediums work from their familiar surroundings without distractions, it enables them to give strong, empowering and positive readings to their callers.
The psychical researcher Hereward Carrington exposed fraudulent mediums' tricks, such as those used in slate-writing, table-turning, trumpet mediumship, materializations, sealed-letter reading, and spirit photography.[29] The skeptic Joseph McCabe, in his book Is Spiritualism Based on Fraud? (1920), documented many fraudulent mediums and their tricks.[30]
A spiritual reading is more interactive than a psychic reading because it provides more guidance and insight than the psychic reader’s interpretation of particular tarot cards or messages from spirit and guides. A good spiritual reader will encourage you to ask questions and to question yourself, so that you experience the reading on a more personal level.
Magicians have a long history of exposing the fraudulent methods of mediumship. Early debunkers included Chung Ling Soo, Henry Evans and Julien Proskauer.[59] Later magicians to reveal fraud were Joseph Dunninger, Harry Houdini and Joseph Rinn. Rose Mackenberg, a private investigator who worked with Houdini during the 1920s, was among the most prominent debunkers of psychic fraud during the mid-20th century.[60]
I don't think any of these women intentionally bullshitted me. I'm sure they believe they possess abilities to communicate with the dead and tap into people's lives. But, again, out of four psychics—people who claim to have special powers to know greater truths—not one noticed that the very premise I approached them on was phoney. Maybe it's because I sprung for the cheaper ones. Maybe it's because I found them on Kijiji. Maybe I'm fantastic enough of a liar that, like Psychic Three said, I managed to conjure up enough spiritual energy to bring Emily into existence. (I guess there's also the possibility that they all knew I was lying but didn't care because I was paying them.) Or maybe psychic powers don't really exist.
Let’s say you want to find a new romantic relationship. Instead of pulling a card to predict whether Prince Charming is just around the corner and either being blissfully excited or bitterly disappointed, you consult the cards to discover how you can attract love (and keep it!). You draw the Ten of Cups, and upon seeing the happy family dancing under the rainbow in the card, you are reminded that to attract love, you need to set a clear vision of what it is you want to attract.  

In 1909, Arthur Edward Waite and Pamela Colman Smith designed and published a tarot deck loosely based on the teachings of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn. This timeless deck is commonly known as the Rider-Waite deck and is still the most popular tarot variant for both beginner and professional card readers. In 1943, occultist Aleister Crowley (the self-declared nemesis of Arthur Edward Waite) and Lady Frieda Harris published their own interpretation of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn's tarot. Their Thoth deck, named after the Egyptian god of alphabets, incorporates specific astrological symbolism into each card, linking the divination practice to the cosmos.
Do compose your emotions and appearance to hide any revealing information about yourself. Your facial expression, style of dress, personal mannerisms, and emotional outbursts can tell a psychic, especially a false one, a great deal about you to make it look like she knows all these things from a paranormal reading, when in fact, she is merely interpreting your physical appearance or reactions.
The Major Arcana cards represent monumental, groundbreaking influences. They punctuate our journeys and each stands alone as a powerful message, representing life-changing motions that define the beginnings or ends of cycles. These dynamic cards appear during major transitions, signaling distinctive moments of transformation. The cards are numbered to represent stations within our greater journey through life; their chronological order reveals the passing of time.
In 1936, the psychical researcher Nandor Fodor tested the Hungarian apport medium Lajos Pap in London and during the séance a dead snake appeared. Pap was searched and was found to be wearing a device under his robe, where he had hidden the snake.[157] A photograph taken at a séance in 1937 in London shows the medium Colin Evans "levitating" in mid air. He claimed that spirits had lifted him. Evans was later discovered to be a fraud as a cord leading from a device in his hand has indicated that it was himself who triggered the flash-photograph and that all he had done was jump from his chair into the air and pretend he had levitated.[158]
Alfred Russel Wallace believed qualitative novelties could arise through the process of spiritual evolution, in particular the phenomena of life and mind. Wallace attributed these novelties to a supernatural agency.[67] Later in his life, Wallace was an advocate of spiritualism and believed in an immaterial origin for the higher mental faculties of humans, he believed that evolution suggested that the universe had a purpose, and that certain aspects of living organisms are not explainable in terms of purely materialistic processes, in a 1909 magazine article entitled "The World of Life", which he later expanded into a book of the same name.[68] Wallace argued in his 1911 book World of Life for a spiritual approach to evolution and described evolution as "creative power, directive mind and ultimate purpose". Wallace believed natural selection could not explain intelligence or morality in the human being so suggested that non-material spiritual forces accounted for these. Wallace believed the spiritual nature of humanity could not have come about by natural selection alone, the origins of the spiritual nature must originate "in the unseen universe of spirit".[69][70]
^ Simeon Edmunds. (1966). Spiritualism: A Critical Survey. Aquarian Press. p. 105. ISBN 978-0850300130 "1876 also saw the first of several exposures of another physical medium, William Eglington, in whose trunk a false beard and a quantity of muslin were found by Archdeacon Colley. He was exposed again in 1880, after which he turned to slate-writing. In this he was exposed by Richard Hodgson and S. J. Davey of the SPR in 1885. Davey a clever conjuror, was able to duplicate all Eglington's phenomena so perfectly that some spiritualists, notably Alfred Russel Wallace, insisted that he too was really a genuine medium."
Psychic Sarah Adelle is a soul mate and twin flame specialist, specializing in love and relationship psychic readings.  Using her psychic gifts of intuition, clairvoyance and the Tarot cards, Soul Mate Psychic Reader Sarah will provide you with the ability to regain control over the obstacles and people that are getting in the way of your hopes, dreams and desires.  Psychic Sarah will predict what is to come between you and your soulmate, so you can avoid as many obstacles as possible and deal with relationship issues in a productive way.
The medium Henry Slade was caught in fraud many times throughout his career. In a séance in 1876 in London Ray Lankester and Bryan Donkin snatched his slate before the "spirit" message was supposed to be written, and found the writing already there.[75] Slade also played an accordion with one hand under the table and claimed spirits would play it. The magician Chung Ling Soo revealed how Slade had performed the trick.[76]

I have been helping people through these issues using a combination of my intuitive gifts and my talent for seeing patterns and helping you see a clear course of action and a realistic sense of what is going on right now.  I take that insight from the reading and turn it into coaching sessions personalised to your path.  It will lead us into other areas to help resolve and explore your life - such as energy work, reiki, past life regressions, sound healing, astrological counselling - whatever spirit guides us to do together so you can thrive !
In 1917, Edward Clodd analyzed the mediumship of the trance medium Gladys Osborne Leonard and came to the conclusion that Leonard had known her séance sitters before she had held the séances, and could have easily obtained such information by natural means.[116] The British psychiatrist Charles Arthur Mercier wrote in his book Spiritualism and Sir Oliver Lodge (1917) that Oliver Lodge had been duped into believing mediumship by trickery and his spiritualist views were based on assumptions and not scientific evidence.[117] 

Spiritualists believe in the possibility of communication with the spirits of dead people, whom they regard as "discarnate humans". They believe that spirit mediums are gifted to carry on such communication, but that anyone may become a medium through study and practice. They believe that spirits are capable of growth and perfection, progressing through higher spheres or planes, and that the afterlife is not a static state, but one in which spirits evolve. The two beliefs—that contact with spirits is possible, and that spirits may dwell on a higher plane—lead to a third belief, that spirits can provide knowledge about moral and ethical issues, as well as about God and the afterlife. Many believers therefore speak of "spirit guides"—specific spirits, often contacted, and relied upon for worldly and spiritual guidance.[1][2]
German-suited decks for Bauerntarock, Württemberg Tarock and Bavarian Tarock are different. They are not true tarot/tarock packs, but a Bavarian or Württemberg pattern of the standard German-suited decks with only 36 cards; the pip cards ranging from 6 to 10, Under Knave (Unter), Over Knave (Ober), King, and Ace. These use Ace-Ten ranking, like Klaverjas, where Ace is the highest followed by 10, King, Ober, Unter, then 9 to 6. The heart suit is the default trump suit.[1] The Bavarian deck is also used to play Schafkopf by excluding the Sixes. 

The word tarot and German Tarock derive from the Italian tarocchi, the origin of which is uncertain but taroch was used as a synonym for foolishness in the late 15th and early 16th centuries.[2][3] The decks were known exclusively as trionfi during the fifteenth century. The new name first appeared in Brescia around 1502 as tarocho.[4] During the 16th century, a new game played with a standard deck but sharing a very similar name (trionfa) was quickly becoming popular. This coincided with the older game being renamed tarocchi.[1] In modern Italian, the singular term is tarocco, which, as a noun, means a type of blood orange, and, as an adjective, means 'fake, counterfeit'.


I have been fortunate enough to work with trance mediums, one especially gifted one, in a therapeutic context for several years now. I personally feel we truly know next to nothing about the mechanisms behind trance channeling and mediumship. Like Edison said, "We don't know one millionth of one percent about anything." I do think it's far more likely to be an integrative both/and rather than either/or pheonomenon with respect to subconscious production vs spirit speakers (to say nothing of tapping the collective unconscious) and that's about all I feel reasonably sure of. Quantum (Unified Field)theories/New Paradigm Science and the like holds promise as far as cracking the code on the the entire spectrum of super-normal phenomena. The study here sounds rudimentary. I would suggest interested readers see the research being done at Windbridge Institue, the Rhine Research Center, and IONS.
The psychologist and psychical researcher Stanley LeFevre Krebs had exposed the Bangs Sisters as frauds. During a séance he employed a hidden mirror and caught them tampering with a letter in an envelope and writing a reply in it under the table which they would pretend a spirit had written.[68] The British materialization medium Rosina Mary Showers was caught in many fraudulent séances throughout her career.[69] In 1874 during a séance with Edward William Cox a sitter looked into the cabinet and seized the spirit, the headdress fell off and was revealed to be Showers.[70]
The article about this phenomenon in Encyclopædia Britannica places emphasis that "… one by one spiritual mediums were convicted of fraud, sometimes using the tricks borrowed from scenic "magicians" to convince their paranormal abilities". In the article it is also noted that "… the opening of the wide ranging fraud happening on spiritualistic sessions caused serious damage to reputation of the movement of a Spiritualism and in the USA pushed it on the public periphery".[205]

Why A Spiritual Reading with Keen? Are you in need of spiritual healing? Are you looking for the strength within to overcome obstacles in your life? Keen has been a trusted source for online spiritual readings since 1999. If you are searching for something deeper and more meaningful in your life, talk to a spiritual psychic about ways you can grow. This advice can include energy clearings, chakra cleansing and balancing, reiki, aura cleansings, and pendulum readings. From spiritual guidance and visualization to astral projection and prayer, advisors on Keen can help you step out of the depths of emptiness and rediscover the radiant spirit residing in your soul. Call a Keen spiritual advisor to start developing a new connection to peace and happiness.
A psychic reading is a specific attempt to discern information through the use of heightened perceptive abilities; or natural extensions of the basic human senses of sight, sound, touch, taste and instinct. These natural extensions are claimed to be clairvoyance (vision), clairsentience (feeling), claircognisance (factual knowing) and clairaudience (hearing) and the resulting statements made during such an attempt.[1] The term is commonly associated with paranormal-based consultation given for a fee in such settings as over the phone, in a home, or at psychic fairs.[2] Though psychic readings are controversial and a focus of skeptical inquiry,[3][4] a popular interest in them persists.[5] Extensive experimentation to replicate psychic results in laboratory conditions have failed to find any precognitive phenomena in humans.[6] Psychic reading is pseudoscience.[7] A cold reading technique allows psychics to produce seemingly specific information about an individual from social cues and broad statements.[8] 

In a series of experiments in London at the house of William Crookes in February 1875, the medium Anna Eva Fay managed to fool Crookes into believing she had genuine psychic powers. Fay later confessed to her fraud and revealed the tricks she had used.[71] Frank Herne a British medium who formed a partnership with the medium Charles Williams was repeatedly exposed in fraudulent materialization séances.[72] In 1875, he was caught pretending to be a spirit during a séance in Liverpool and was found "clothed in about two yards of stiffened muslin, wound round his head and hanging down as far as his thigh."[73] Florence Cook had been "trained in the arts of the séance" by Herne and was repeatedly exposed as a fraudulent medium.[74]


Whether you are shopping online or in-person, observe your emotions as you browse different tarot decks. Does the one you're considering make you feel excited? Wary? Confused? Trust your intuition: Your careful consideration will ultimately guide your interpretation of the cards. Explore the imagery: Are you enchanted by classical or modern representations? Note the symbols: Are they enticing? Remember, there is no hierarchy of tarot decks, so be sure to choose whichever deck truly tantalizes your soul.
Learn More about Love & Relationships Looking for more information about love and relationships? Keen has hundreds of love advice articles for relationship situations just like yours. Additionally, Keen offers daily horoscopes and astrological information about your sign. Get your free horoscope for your zodiac sign: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces. Each of these horoscopes is updated every day, as every day is different and holds a different fate! Check back often to see what your day holds.
Losing our loved ones can be one of the hardest experiences we go through in life, especially when they may have been the people we would have turned to for advice and who we dearly miss. A Medium reading can be one of the most comforting encounters you can have, and although many think that it could be emotional, it is actually an uplifting and wonderfully reassuring experience that you will cherish. Spiritual Mediums are compassionate and understanding people, fully aware that the gift that they have is an open door for the living to connect with their loved ones in the afterlife and one that they must use in a sensitive and loving way.

'Experienced Spirit Mediums'. Experienced? What is there to demonstrate the experience? 'Medium'? I was 'painting' with morality - as I always do. Not also true for mediums - is it? 'Spirit'? What sort of 'spirit' is common to all 'mediums'? Is there a 'spirit' common to all 'mediums'? If so, what is it? For example, I'm not sure the 'spirit' of a 'medium' in Bristol would be identical to the 'spirit' of a 'medium' in, say, Liverpool. Is that, for example, what presents the controversy? But I welcome the research into 'spirit' brains. Indeed, they were psychographed.
We have the original NewAgeStore tarot interpretations and the extremely popular tarot cards from Aquatic Tarot by the lovely Andres Schroeter, the same cards that have been on NewAgeStore for over a decade.  In addition, the lovely and very talented Ciro Marchetti has graciously agreed to allow us to use his divine works of tarot art to add to our readings page. And yes! These cards are available for purchase directly through Ciro’s website

Psychic Three's studio was nestled in a suburban strip mall and plastered with the classic psychic decor that makes graphic designers consider seppuku—deep purple signs with all-caps yellow text and neon crystal balls. I scampered up a bright red stairwell and into a purple room (same purple as the signs) where a smiling woman wearing a tank top and sweat pants was sitting at a small table. I sat down opposite her and took in the weird mix of art—a small tapestry of what I'm quite sure was Jesus and his disciples on the table, but also a fair share of Buddha statues, too.


This brings back happy memories! It's from an event in Lowell MA. from some years ago. I had such a good time with the audience! My mom was in the audience - makes this extra special! Miss her. Loved ones on the Other-Side also want us to be happy and they too can have a good sense of humor. These type of demonstrations always brings out the tears, but also the joy and laughter! *** Will be doing the same type of demonstration with Lauren Rainbow, Medium Feb 10th at the The Music Hall Portsmouth NH. Tix on sale on my website events & here in the comment section.


When you experience a reading with TheCircle Mediums you will without doubt know that you are speaking to a genuine Spiritual Medium from the experience that you have. However, we can reassure you that all of our Psychics, Mediums and Clairvoyant Readers are experienced with their skills and are taken through a thorough test process before they are allowed to join us. We only accept Readers who meet our high standards.
Doyle, who lost his son Kingsley in World War I, was also a member of the Ghost Club. Founded in London in 1862, its focus was the scientific study of alleged paranormal activities in order to prove (or refute) the existence of paranormal phenomena. Famous members of the club included Charles Dickens, Sir William Crookes, Sir William F. Barrett, and Harry Price.[26] The Paris séances of Eusapia Palladino were attended by an enthusiastic Pierre Curie and a dubious Marie Curie. The celebrated New York City physician, John Franklin Gray, was a prominent spiritualist.[27]
Firstly, you need to decide what kind of reading you want. Are you hoping to connect with a loved one? Are you interested in forging your spiritual path and need a little guidance? Are you wondering what energies are around you? Would you like a little advice from the angels? There are many psychics who devote their time to one or more of these practices. You will have to do a little research to find the one that can help you.
I've known Dominique Arganese for some time now and I've always noticed a certain aura of mysticism around her. However, it wasn't until a few weeks ago that I realized her Facebook bio said: "Model, Psychic, Medium, Tarot and Palm reader [...]." Wait, what? Model AND psychic? You may or may not know that I am exceptionally fascinated with all things paranormal. So right away I knew that I had to get in touch with this gorgeous creature and 1) beg her for a palm reading then 2) have her answer a few questions about this mysterious professional domain.

I just wanted to let you know that your readings (tarot of the week) and reflections (from the other newletter, I don’t remember the name!) are always right on. They went through very difficult, and much happier times during these years and reading you has always been such a great support, so soothing, at times confronting, always insigthful. I often share it with my friends, when I see that they are particularly affected by the « energies of the week » and they greatly appreciate it as well!


Tarot card readings have long surpassed the chintzy, neon “Fortune Teller” sign store front stereotype, which gives tarot a bad name and should be avoided. Scholarly research indicates that the cards originated in Italy in the 1500s where they were used as a game, called Tarocchi, by the very wealthy. They weren’t interpreted for spiritual divination until the 18th century. There are tarot schools where you can study and huge communities with thousands of Tarosophists who meet online and at conventions around the world.
Your Angels and Spirit Guides are here to lovingly help you and guide you with your best interest at heart. They are with you all the time and know your situation intimately.  They know what is ahead for you, what you can expect in the future, why certain people are in your life and what they will mean to you, what habits or actions are blocking you from reaching your highest potential, where your gifts are and how you can best apply them, what to look forward to, and much, much more. They answer your questions and share their information in the reading.
Playing cards first entered Europe in the late 14th century, most likely from Mamluk Egypt, with suits of Batons or Polo sticks (commonly known as Wands by those practicing occult or divinatory tarot), Coins (commonly known as disks, or pentacles in occult or divinatory tarot), Swords, and Cups. These suits were very similar to modern tarot divination decks and are still used in traditional Italian, Spanish and Portuguese playing card decks.[5]
^ Joseph McCabe. (1920). Spiritualism: A Popular History from 1847. Dodd, Mead and Company. pp. 110–12. A Mr. Merrifield was present at one of the sittings. Home's usual phenomena were messages, the moving of objects (presumably at a distance), and the playing of an accordion which he held with one hand under the shadow of the table. But from an early date in America he had been accustomed occasionally to "materialise" hands (as it was afterwards called). The sitters would, in the darkness, faintly see a ghostly hand and arm, or they might feel the touch of an icy limb. Mr. Merrifield and the other sitters saw a "spirit-hand" stretch across the faintly lit space of the window. But Mr. Merrifield says that Home sat, or crouched, low in a low chair, and that the "spirit-hand" was a false limb on the end of Home's arm. At other times, he says, he saw that Home was using his foot."
Since the psychic industry is unregulated, it is difficult to report scams and get your money back. It’s really up to the client (you) to determine the validity of a particular medium before plunking down your cash. In addition to visiting the website and screening by telephone, you can ask for referrals (keep in mind these could be the so-called psychic’s friends and relatives) or request the answer to a test question, such as the city where you were born or your maiden name. If the answer doesn’t satisfy you, don’t bother to schedule a reading. There are plenty of other psychics to check out.
Firstly, you need to decide what kind of reading you want. Are you hoping to connect with a loved one? Are you interested in forging your spiritual path and need a little guidance? Are you wondering what energies are around you? Would you like a little advice from the angels? There are many psychics who devote their time to one or more of these practices. You will have to do a little research to find the one that can help you.
^ Frank Podmore. (1902). Modern Spiritualism: A History and a Criticism. Volume 2. Methuen & Company. pp. 283-287 "It seems reasonable to conclude that all the marvels reported at [Moses] seances were, in fact, produced by the medium's own hands: that it was he who tilted the table and produced the raps, that the scents, the seed pearls, and the Parian statuettes were brought into the room in his pockets: and that the spirit lights were, in fact, nothing more than bottles of phosphorised oil. Nor would the feats described have required any special skill on the medium's part."
German-suited decks for Bauerntarock, Württemberg Tarock and Bavarian Tarock are different. They are not true tarot/tarock packs, but a Bavarian or Württemberg pattern of the standard German-suited decks with only 36 cards; the pip cards ranging from 6 to 10, Under Knave (Unter), Over Knave (Ober), King, and Ace. These use Ace-Ten ranking, like Klaverjas, where Ace is the highest followed by 10, King, Ober, Unter, then 9 to 6. The heart suit is the default trump suit.[1] The Bavarian deck is also used to play Schafkopf by excluding the Sixes.
You may not always get the opportunity to physically sit down with someone who is skilled in the art of reading the cards, or perhaps afford to pay for regular readings, so here at Lotus Tarot we aim to provide you with a little guidance and easy and convenient access to information. Hopefully, this will bring you some pleasure, as well as insights and hope for the future.
A widely known channeler of this variety is J. Z. Knight, who claims to channel the spirit of Ramtha, a 30 thousand-year-old man. Others purport to channel spirits from "future dimensions", ascended masters,[32] or, in the case of the trance mediums of the Brahma Kumaris, God.[33] Other notable channels are Jane Roberts for Seth, Esther Hicks for Abraham,[34] and Carla L. Rueckert for Ra.[35][36]

Being a Spiritualist Medium is a gift often inherited or sometimes experienced from a very young age, so it is not easy to learn and develop your skills to be a Spiritual Medium, as you have to have a natural ability. However, many people do experience signs that their loved ones are around but many do not know what to look out for. Online Mediums say that one of the easiest ways to connect with your loved ones who have passed over, is through your dreams. Before you go to sleep, ask your loved ones to come through in your dreams. It may not happen the first time you ask, but keep trying as often they will appear in your dreams. The dreams can be quite vivid and can be a replay of a memory or a place you liked to visit together. Other signs of loved ones being around us can be a sudden memory out of the blue, a strong but fleeting smell of perfume or a scent related to them, or just a convincing sense that they are around you. Some people have even found that when the lose something important, they can ask their loved ones to help them find it and it suddenly appears.


Diversity of belief among organized spiritualists has led to a few schisms, the most notable occurring in the U.K. in 1957 between those who held the movement to be a religion sui generis (of its own with unique characteristics), and a minority who held it to be a denomination within Christianity. In the United States, this distinction can be seen between the less Christian organization, the National Spiritualist Association of Churches, and the more Christian spiritual church movement.
In March 1902 in Berlin, police officers interrupted a séance of the German apport medium Frau Anna Rothe. Her hands were grabbed and she was wrestled to the ground. A female police assistant physically examined Rothe and discovered 157 flowers as well as oranges and lemons hidden in her petticoat. She was arrested and charged with fraud.[102] Another apport medium Hilda Lewis known as the "flower medium" confessed to fraud.[103]

The Medium definition explains that they often have all of the psychic gifts, alongside being able to connect with people who have passed over to the spirit world through channelling. A reading with a Spiritual Medium can be a more natural and personal reading because of the link with the afterlife and loved ones in spirit. If the Medium combines this with other Psychic abilities such as ‘Clairs’ and Tarot cards this can lead to an in depth and insightful reading.
Circo says: “This deck is based on my first deck the Gilded Tarot, but is a complete working of that original deck, every images was redone. So i regard it as a separate entity. It is not cheap, its US $110, that is because its special edition and aimed at collectors, every deck is signed, every deck is also unique. I produced variations in colour on several cards, and then selected those variables randomly while collating each deck. The result is that each deck has its own combination of the 78 cards, I think statistically there is a 1 in 7000 chance that two decks the same. A quantity that far more than the number I printed…” There is also a link to a promotional video on the cards YouTube
^ Paul Kurtz. (1985). A Skeptic's Handbook of Parapsychology. Prometheus Books. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-87975-300-9 "Florence Cook was caught cheating not only before her séances with Crookes but also afterward. Furthermore, she learned her trade from the mediums Frank Herne and Charles Williams, who were notorious for their cheating." Also see M. Lamar Keene. (1997). The Psychic Mafia. Prometheus Books. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-57392-161-9 "The most famous of materialization mediums, Florence Cook – though she managed to convince a scientist, Sir William Crookes, that she was genuine – was repeatedly exposed in fraud. Florence had been trained in the arts of the séance by Frank Herne, a well-known physical medium whose materializations were grabbed on more than one occasion and found to be the medium himself."
Spiritualists believe in the possibility of communication with the spirits of dead people, whom they regard as "discarnate humans". They believe that spirit mediums are gifted to carry on such communication, but that anyone may become a medium through study and practice. They believe that spirits are capable of growth and perfection, progressing through higher spheres or planes, and that the afterlife is not a static state, but one in which spirits evolve. The two beliefs—that contact with spirits is possible, and that spirits may dwell on a higher plane—lead to a third belief, that spirits can provide knowledge about moral and ethical issues, as well as about God and the afterlife. Many believers therefore speak of "spirit guides"—specific spirits, often contacted, and relied upon for worldly and spiritual guidance.[1][2]
The psychical researcher Hereward Carrington exposed fraudulent mediums' tricks, such as those used in slate-writing, table-turning, trumpet mediumship, materializations, sealed-letter reading, and spirit photography.[29] The skeptic Joseph McCabe, in his book Is Spiritualism Based on Fraud? (1920), documented many fraudulent mediums and their tricks.[30]
Spiritualists often set March 31, 1848, as the beginning of their movement. On that date, Kate and Margaret Fox, of Hydesville, New York, reported that they had made contact with a spirit that was later claimed to be the spirit of a murdered peddler whose body was found in the house, though no record of such a person was ever found. The spirit was said to have communicated through rapping noises, audible to onlookers. The evidence of the senses appealed to practically-minded Americans, and the Fox sisters became a sensation. As the first celebrity mediums, the sisters quickly became famous for their public séances in New York.[13] However, in 1888 the Fox sisters admitted that this "contact" with the spirit was a hoax, though shortly afterward they recanted that admission.[1][2]
Theosophy is in opposition to the spiritualist interpretation of evolution. Theosophy teaches a metaphysical theory of evolution mixed with human devolution. Spiritualists do not accept the devolution of the theosophists. To theosophy humanity starts in a state of perfection (see Golden age) and falls into a process of progressive materialization (devolution), developing the mind and losing the spiritual consciousness. After the gathering of experience and growth through repeated reincarnations humanity will regain the original spiritual state, which is now one of self-conscious perfection. Theosophy and spiritualism were both very popular metaphysical schools of thought especially in the early 20th century and thus were always clashing in their different beliefs. Madame Blavatsky was critical of spiritualism; she distanced theosophy from spiritualism as far as she could and allied herself with eastern occultism.[63]
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