In the 1930s Harry Price (director of the National Laboratory of Psychical Research) had investigated the medium Helen Duncan and had her perform a number of test séances. She was suspected of swallowing cheesecloth which was then regurgitated as "ectoplasm".[151] Price had proven through analysis of a sample of ectoplasm produced by Duncan, that it was made of cheesecloth.[152] Helen Duncan would also use a doll made of a painted papier-mâché mask draped in an old sheet which she pretended to her sitters was a spirit.[153] The photographs taken by Thomas Glendenning Hamilton in the 1930s of ectoplasm reveal the substance to be made of tissue paper and magazine cut-outs of people. The famous photograph taken by Hamilton of the medium Mary Ann Marshall depicts tissue paper with a cut out of Arthur Conan Doyle's head from a newspaper. Skeptics have suspected that Hamilton may have been behind the hoax.[154] https://drive.google.com/file/d/1kDLmoSdqz-QDS25aG4jqnjiWudIFqg98/view?usp=sharing

^ Joseph McCabe. (1920). Spiritualism: A Popular History from 1847. Dodd, Mead and Company. pp. 110–12. A Mr. Merrifield was present at one of the sittings. Home's usual phenomena were messages, the moving of objects (presumably at a distance), and the playing of an accordion which he held with one hand under the shadow of the table. But from an early date in America he had been accustomed occasionally to "materialise" hands (as it was afterwards called). The sitters would, in the darkness, faintly see a ghostly hand and arm, or they might feel the touch of an icy limb. Mr. Merrifield and the other sitters saw a "spirit-hand" stretch across the faintly lit space of the window. But Mr. Merrifield says that Home sat, or crouched, low in a low chair, and that the "spirit-hand" was a false limb on the end of Home's arm. At other times, he says, he saw that Home was using his foot."


Clairvoyance. Clairvoyant mediums can see spirits, auras, objects and places that are not perceptible to others. People who have passed away may appear to them in visions, or they may be able to vividly sense a place to which they have never been. Psychic mediums see these visions with their third eye, located between the two physical eyes. Everyone has a third eye, but the average person's is closed or too weak to use.
In 1936, the psychical researcher Nandor Fodor tested the Hungarian apport medium Lajos Pap in London and during the séance a dead snake appeared. Pap was searched and was found to be wearing a device under his robe, where he had hidden the snake.[160] A photograph taken at a séance in 1937 in London shows the medium Colin Evans "levitating" in mid air. He claimed that spirits had lifted him. Evans was later discovered to be a fraud as a cord leading from a device in his hand has indicated that it was himself who triggered the flash-photograph and that all he had done was jump from his chair into the air and pretend he had levitated.[161]
^ Joseph Jastrow. (1935). Patience Worth: An Alter Ego in Wish and Wisdom: Episodes in the Vagaries of Belief. D. Appleton-Century Company. pp. 78–92. Lyon Sprague de Camp. (1966). Spirits, Stars, and Spells. New York: Canaveral. p. 247. Robert Goldenson. (1973). Mysteries of the Mind: The Drama of Human Behavior. Doubleday. pp. 44–53. Milbourne Christopher. (1970). ESP, Seers and Psychics. New York: Crowell. pp. 128–29
Modern spiritualists and psychics keep detailed files on their victims. As might be expected, these files can be very valuable and are often passed on from one medium or psychic to another when one retires or dies. Even if a psychic doesn't use a private detective or have immediate access to driver's license records and such, there is still a very powerful technique that will allow the psychic to convince people that the psychic knows all about them, their problems, and their deep personal secrets, fears, and desires. The technique is called cold reading and is probably as old as charlatanism itself... If John Edward (or any of the other self-proclaimed speakers with the dead) really could communicate with the dead, it would be a trivial matter to prove it. All that would be necessary would be for him to contact any of the thousands of missing persons who are presumed dead—famous (e.g., Jimmy Hoffa, Judge Crater) or otherwise—and correctly report where the body is. Of course, this is never done. All we get, instead, are platitudes to the effect that Aunt Millie, who liked green plates, is happy on the other side.[195]
Knowing which questions to ask a psychic takes a little thought because the questions you think you want to ask will deliver little to no results. For example, passive questions like, "Will I ever get married?" "When will I meet my next boyfriend?" are impossible to answer because the future is not bound and determined. Instead, ask questions that can aid a current situation that could affect your life down the road - like marriage. A good example would be something like, "My partner and I seem to be hitting a wall. What are the most effective tactics for improving my relationship?" You also want to avoid questions that are begging for reassurance (Should I get divorced?) or that are full of doubt. Remember that standing up for yourself will get you farther than looking for a hand to hold. Instead, ask results-driven questions like, "Why am I no longer as connected with my partner now than when I was first married." The more precise you are with your questions, the better reading you will receive, so put a pen to paper before jumping on the phone.
No doubt a great importance in the paranormal field is the problem of fraud. The field of psychic research and spiritualism has been so notoriously full of charlatans, such as the Fox sisters and Eusapia Palladino–individuals who claim to have special power and gifts but who are actually conjurers who have hoodwinked scientists and the public as well–that we have to be especially cautious about claims made on their behalf.[61] https://drive.google.com/file/d/1jfIdkes6t1TCleih9mebaywuoSViJSRK/view?usp=sharing
In the 1930s Harry Price (director of the National Laboratory of Psychical Research) had investigated the medium Helen Duncan and had her perform a number of test séances. She was suspected of swallowing cheesecloth which was then regurgitated as "ectoplasm".[151] Price had proven through analysis of a sample of ectoplasm produced by Duncan, that it was made of cheesecloth.[152] Helen Duncan would also use a doll made of a painted papier-mâché mask draped in an old sheet which she pretended to her sitters was a spirit.[153] The photographs taken by Thomas Glendenning Hamilton in the 1930s of ectoplasm reveal the substance to be made of tissue paper and magazine cut-outs of people. The famous photograph taken by Hamilton of the medium Mary Ann Marshall depicts tissue paper with a cut out of Arthur Conan Doyle's head from a newspaper. Skeptics have suspected that Hamilton may have been behind the hoax.[154]
"Trance mediumship" is often seen as a form of mental mediumship. Most trance mediums remain conscious during a communication period, wherein a spirit uses the medium's mind to communicate. The spirit or spirits using the medium's mind influences the mind with the thoughts being conveyed. The medium allows the ego to step aside for the message to be delivered. At the same time, one has awareness of the thoughts coming through and may even influence the message with one's own bias. Such a trance is not to be confused with sleepwalking, as the patterns are entirely different. Castillo (1995) states,
Another important distinction is that while psychic readings often focus on predicting future events, mediums primarily tune into past and present issues. It's my opinion that predicting the future, while sometimes helpful, runs the risk of disempowering people. Always remember that you do have a say in how your future unfolds. Despite what any psychic or medium may "see" in your future, it is important to remember you were given the gift of free will when you came into this world, and at any moment in time you can absolutely redirect your course and create the life you want by changing your thoughts and actions. Psychic information is often just insight into what potentially could happen based on the road you are currently traveling—and it should be used only as a guideline to help you make the best choices for yourself.

Senses used by mental mediums are sometimes defined differently from in other paranormal fields. A medium is said to have psychic abilities but not all psychics function as mediums. The term clairvoyance, for instance, may include seeing spirit and visions instilled by the spirit world. The Parapsychological Association defines "clairvoyance" as information derived directly from an external physical source.[37]

Modern spiritualists and psychics keep detailed files on their victims. As might be expected, these files can be very valuable and are often passed on from one medium or psychic to another when one retires or dies. Even if a psychic doesn't use a private detective or have immediate access to driver's license records and such, there is still a very powerful technique that will allow the psychic to convince people that the psychic knows all about them, their problems, and their deep personal secrets, fears, and desires. The technique is called cold reading and is probably as old as charlatanism itself... If John Edward (or any of the other self-proclaimed speakers with the dead) really could communicate with the dead, it would be a trivial matter to prove it. All that would be necessary would be for him to contact any of the thousands of missing persons who are presumed dead—famous (e.g., Jimmy Hoffa, Judge Crater) or otherwise—and correctly report where the body is. Of course, this is never done. All we get, instead, are platitudes to the effect that Aunt Millie, who liked green plates, is happy on the other side.[195]


Mina Crandon claimed to materialize a "spirit hand", but when examined by biologists the hand was discovered to be made from a piece of carved animal liver.[146] The German apport medium Heinrich Melzer was discovered to be a fraud in 1926. In a séance psychical researchers found that Melzer had small stones attached to the back of his ears by flesh coloured tape.[147] Psychical researchers who investigated the mediumship of Maria Silbert revealed that she used her feet and toes to move objects in the séance room.[148]

The article about this phenomenon in Encyclopædia Britannica places emphasis that "… one by one spiritual mediums were convicted of fraud, sometimes using the tricks borrowed from scenic "magicians" to convince their paranormal abilities". In the article it is also noted that "… the opening of the wide ranging fraud happening on spiritualistic sessions caused serious damage to reputation of the movement of a Spiritualism and in the USA pushed it on the public periphery".[208] https://drive.google.com/file/d/1y5Nf16dWP74wWod3tdEZ2TTw0KpVA-UP/view?usp=sharing


The exposures of fraudulent activity led to a rapid decline in ectoplasm and materialization séances.[202] Investigator Joe Nickell has written that modern self-proclaimed mediums like John Edward, Sylvia Browne, Rosemary Altea and James Van Praagh are avoiding the Victorian tradition of dark rooms, spirit handwriting and flying tambourines as these methods risk exposure. They instead use "mental mediumship" tactics like cold reading or gleaning information from sitters before hand (hot reading). Group readings also improve hits by making general statements with conviction, which will fit at least one person in the audience. Shows are carefully edited before airing to show only what appears to be hits and removing anything that does not reflect well on the medium.[203] https://drive.google.com/file/d/1m8tDdnDvQeYKNhkzNnvJxqGwwuFGxT1C/view?usp=sharing
^ Joseph McCabe. (1920). Spiritualism: A Popular History from 1847. Dodd, Mead and Company. pp. 110–12. A Mr. Merrifield was present at one of the sittings. Home's usual phenomena were messages, the moving of objects (presumably at a distance), and the playing of an accordion which he held with one hand under the shadow of the table. But from an early date in America he had been accustomed occasionally to "materialise" hands (as it was afterwards called). The sitters would, in the darkness, faintly see a ghostly hand and arm, or they might feel the touch of an icy limb. Mr. Merrifield and the other sitters saw a "spirit-hand" stretch across the faintly lit space of the window. But Mr. Merrifield says that Home sat, or crouched, low in a low chair, and that the "spirit-hand" was a false limb on the end of Home's arm. At other times, he says, he saw that Home was using his foot."
"Mental mediumship" is communication of spirits with a medium by telepathy. The medium mentally "hears" (clairaudience), "sees" (clairvoyance), and/or feels (clairsentience) messages from spirits. Directly or with the help of a spirit guide, the medium passes the information on to the message's recipient(s). When a medium is doing a "reading" for a particular person, that person is known as the "sitter". https://drive.google.com/file/d/1GEKx89qSKkJWI3i0M9kXg4Jy6OlYi_Qz/view?usp=sharing
In 1970 two psychical researchers investigated the direct-voice medium Leslie Flint and found that all the "spirit" voices in his séance sounded exactly like himself and attributed his mediumship to "second-rate ventriloquism".[173] The medium Arthur Ford died leaving specific instructions that all of his files should be burned. In 1971 after his death, psychical researchers discovered his files but instead of burning them they were examined and discovered to be filled with obituaries, newspaper articles and other information, which enabled Ford to research his séance sitters backgrounds.[174]
The suffix Voyant in Clairvoyant does not necessarily imply seeing pictures, graphics or pictorial presentation as such. ‘Seeing’ may also mean  ‘understanding’ like in ‘Oh, I see!’ In this context the ability of the clairvoyant medium may also include clairsentience, which means that the clairvoyant medium clearly senses the things and the situations. He experiences a kind of gut feeling about what is going to happen or how a situation can be best tackled to provide good results.
Looking for answers about life, love, and relationships? Let our genuine love psychics help you attain clarity and answers to your questions about the relationships you have with the people around you. Whether you are struggling with co-workers, your significant other, or your family, our psychics can help you gain insight into your life and the importance of the relationships you have.
It depends how you became a psychic medium; if you had a mentor, they will probably want to keep an eye over you for a while, just till you feel comfortable on your own. Even if you've come to this realization on your own, it can be helpful to get advice and guidance from an experiences psychic. In some cases, your clients might only trust you if you are known to have been mentored or guided by an experienced and known psychic.
In 1954, the psychical researcher Rudolf Lambert published a report revealing details about a case of fraud that was covered up by many early members of the Institute Metapsychique International (IMI).[166] Lambert who had studied Gustav Geley's files on the medium Eva Carrière discovered photographs depicting fraudulent ectoplasm taken by her companion Juliette Bisson.[166] Various "materializations" were artificially attached to Eva's hair by wires. The discovery was never published by Geley. Eugéne Osty (the director of the institute) and members Jean Meyer, Albert von Schrenck-Notzing and Charles Richet all knew about the fraudulent photographs but were firm believers in mediumship phenomena so demanded the scandal be kept secret.[166]
Whatever your issues at the time, whether it’s love, job, finances, we have psychics specialising in different areas available at any time. We have you covered! You want to feel better right away? You are just a click away from a quality tarot card reading, or an astrology prediction that can look into your zodiac sign and tell you your next best move to take.
16+ years experience, over 20K readings & 4 years on Oranum. Clairvoyant,Clairsentient. Tarot expert,Rune,Lenormand, IChing,Dowser, Chinese Fortune Teller Pendulum, Reiki Master, Life Coach. Specialities: reconciling relationships, Predictions Love life/Career/Finance/Court Case. Soul mates/Twin flame confirmation. Guidance /Time frame for predictions.No Sugar Coat no false hope.Only reveal Truth.
What actually transpires during the trance is that the clairvoyant medium sees visions, hears voices, feels the energy and interprets his experiences in intelligible human language. The narration of the sequence of events is convincing as it divulges the secrets and facts, which are known only to the seeker. This revelation of personal facts builds trusts between the seeker and the clairvoyant medium.
This technique, rather than using all types of external energy to appear as an apparition, those in Spirit are able to use MY energy, the energy of my brainpower and thought energy, to appear to me. It’s way easier, and since I am with a physical body and on earth, I can draw on food, water, and heat, to gain more energy for myself. In other words, I can gather more energy more easily and quickly than those in Spirit ~ so I offer my energy to your loved ones in sessions so that they can show me themselves, images, and deliver messages, with less work and strain on their part.
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