The poet Robert Browning and his wife Elizabeth attended a séance on 23, July 1855 in Ealing with the Rymers.[64] During the séance a spirit face materialized which Home claimed was the son of Browning who had died in infancy. Browning seized the "materialization" and discovered it to be the bare foot of Home. To make the deception worse, Browning had never lost a son in infancy. Browning's son Robert in a letter to The Times, December 5, 1902 referred to the incident "Home was detected in a vulgar fraud."[65][66] The researchers Joseph McCabe and Trevor H. Hall exposed the "levitation" of Home as nothing more than his moving across a connecting ledge between two iron balconies.[67]
In addition, the movement appealed to reformers, who fortuitously found that the spirits favored such causes du jour as abolition of slavery, and equal rights for women.[2] It also appealed to some who had a materialist orientation and rejected organized religion. In 1854 the utopian socialist Robert Owen was converted to spiritualism after "sittings" with the American medium Maria B. Hayden (credited with introducing spiritualism to England); Owen made a public profession of his new faith in his publication The Rational quarterly review and later wrote a pamphlet, The future of the Human race; or great glorious and future revolution to be effected through the agency of departed spirits of good and superior men and women.[22]
In 1992, Richard Wiseman analyzed the Feilding report of Eusapia Palladino and argued that she employed a secret accomplice that could enter the room by a fake door panel positioned near the séance cabinet. Wiseman discovered this trick was already mentioned in a book from 1851, he also visited a carpenter and skilled magician who constructed a door within an hour with a false panel. The accomplice was suspected to be her second husband, who insisted on bringing Palladino to the hotel where the séances took place.[181] Massimo Polidoro and Gian Marco Rinaldi also analyzed the Feilding report but came to the conclusion no secret accomplice was needed as Palladino during the 1908 Naples séances could have produced the phenomena by using her foot.[182]
Spiritualists often set March 31, 1848, as the beginning of their movement. On that date, Kate and Margaret Fox, of Hydesville, New York, reported that they had made contact with a spirit that was later claimed to be the spirit of a murdered peddler whose body was found in the house, though no record of such a person was ever found. The spirit was said to have communicated through rapping noises, audible to onlookers. The evidence of the senses appealed to practically-minded Americans, and the Fox sisters became a sensation. As the first celebrity mediums, the sisters quickly became famous for their public séances in New York.[13] However, in 1888 the Fox sisters admitted that this "contact" with the spirit was a hoax, though shortly afterward they recanted that admission.[1][2]

And here’s the thing – you may already consciously know the message or insight you receive in a Tarot reading, in which case, the reading can be a heartening confirmation of what you already know. Or, you might be completely unaware of the message until you see it reflected in the cards, in which case you are now empowered to take action based on your new awareness. 


There are many Psychic websites offering readings with a Psychic Medium and Spiritualist Medium, so it can be difficult to choose who to speak to and to know which is the best for a high quality reading. At TheCircle we carefully choose our Psychic Mediums and unless they give outstanding readings during the test process, they will not be a part of our team. We ensure that our Psychic Medium readings are a cut above the rest, offering excellent evidence from our compassionate and gifted Readers, to make sure that you have an amazing experience that leaves you feeling empowered and inspired with peace of mind for your loved ones, and your future.
The Minor Arcana cards are broken up into four suits, each containing ten numbered cards and four court cards. In the Minor Arcana, the card's number reveals the stage of an event: The ace card represents the beginning, while the ten symbolizes the end. Similarly, the progression of the court cards demonstrates our understanding of circumstances on an individual level, representing either personality types or actual people. The Page (or Princess, in some decks), Knight, Queen, and King interpret circumstances with increasing levels of understanding and wisdom.
The tarot (/ˈtæroʊ/; first known as trionfi and later as tarocchi, tarock and tarot) is a pack of playing cards, used from the mid-15th century in various parts of Europe to play games such as Italian tarocchini, French tarot and Austrian Königrufen. Many of these tarot card games are still played today. In the late 18th century, some Tarot packs began to be used in parallel for divination in the form of tarotology and cartomancy and, later, specialist packs were developed for such occult purposes.
Prominent investigators who exposed cases of fraud came from a variety of backgrounds, including professional researchers such as Frank Podmore of the Society for Psychical Research and Harry Price of the National Laboratory of Psychical Research, and professional conjurers such as John Nevil Maskelyne. Maskelyne exposed the Davenport brothers by appearing in the audience during their shows and explaining how the trick was done.

Over time, many great thinkers have added to the deeper understanding of the Tarot cards. Carl Jung connected the symbology of the trumps to archetypes, concluding that the tarot might play an important role in psychoanalysis. The Hero’s Journey discussed by Joseph Campbell laid the foundation for the Journey of the Fool, who jumps heedlessly off a cliff only to come full circle into the position of magician. The archetypal symbols in each card tell a story, and therefore clue the reader into what influences are appearing in the querent’s own life.
The psychical researcher Hereward Carrington exposed fraudulent mediums' tricks, such as those used in slate-writing, table-turning, trumpet mediumship, materializations, sealed-letter reading, and spirit photography.[29] The skeptic Joseph McCabe, in his book Is Spiritualism Based on Fraud? (1920), documented many fraudulent mediums and their tricks.[30]
But here's the interesting part: the writing samples produced were analyzed and it was found that the complexity scores for the psychographed content were higher than those for the control writing across the board. In particular, the more experienced mediums showed higher complexity scores, which typically would require more activity in the frontal and temporal lobes--but that's precisely the opposite of what was observed.
Now that you have grounded yourself, please select the cards we will use for your Tarot card reading. Remember, I shuffle my deck and draw new cards for the Tarot spreads every day, and these cards represent each one as it was laid out in front of me. Please take a moment to pause between drawing your cards, and when you are done selecting your cards for your Tarot reading you will be whisked away to a detailed interpretation of each card and what it means in its position in the Celtic Cross Spread.

You can find the psychics on various online websites who can offer Tarot Card readings, Palm readings, numerology readings, astrological (birth chart) readings etc. and also help you with issues related to relationships, career or personal life. However, they are generally expensive. I find that local psychics and sensitives ask a more reasonable hourly rate. Because they are in the room with you, you get a more personal relationship as well.

In March 1902 in Berlin, police officers interrupted a séance of the German apport medium Frau Anna Rothe. Her hands were grabbed and she was wrestled to the ground. A female police assistant physically examined Rothe and discovered 157 flowers as well as oranges and lemons hidden in her petticoat. She was arrested and charged with fraud.[102] Another apport medium Hilda Lewis known as the "flower medium" confessed to fraud.[103]


My sister and I both realized our gifts and then discovered from speaking with our father that his father's brother was an acknowledged psychic in Rome, Italy. And then I also realized I could read hands and what I would see would surprise everyone and what I would predict would happen. I was really surprised at what I was able to read off the hands of my friends. 

^ Paul Kurtz. (1985). A Skeptic's Handbook of Parapsychology. Prometheus Books. p. 29. ISBN 978-0-87975-300-9 "Florence Cook was caught cheating not only before her séances with Crookes but also afterward. Furthermore, she learned her trade from the mediums Frank Herne and Charles Williams, who were notorious for their cheating." Also see M. Lamar Keene. (1997). The Psychic Mafia. Prometheus Books. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-57392-161-9 "The most famous of materialization mediums, Florence Cook – though she managed to convince a scientist, Sir William Crookes, that she was genuine – was repeatedly exposed in fraud. Florence had been trained in the arts of the séance by Frank Herne, a well-known physical medium whose materializations were grabbed on more than one occasion and found to be the medium himself."
Firstly, you need to decide what kind of reading you want. Are you hoping to connect with a loved one? Are you interested in forging your spiritual path and need a little guidance? Are you wondering what energies are around you? Would you like a little advice from the angels? There are many psychics who devote their time to one or more of these practices. You will have to do a little research to find the one that can help you.

See yourself the way Spirit does…through love and light. Discover why you do what you do. Learn how to understand, accept and heal yourself. By stopping the negative thoughts and turn them into POSITIVE. Learn how to clear your energy and the energy of those around you. Connect with Spirit Guides, Angels, and Higher-self. Experience the energies that surround you, how to identify them, clear them or draw on them. Practice Meditation, connecting, healing and working together to open our Spiritual-selves. Join us in learning to accept ourselves and others in a place where you can “BE” free to just “BE” you.


These sessions are specifically designed for both Couples and Singles who are wanting to co create aligned relationships based on unconditional love and acceptance as well as maintaining them. The key is to clearly identify where (blocks) are and shift them so you can have what you are really wanting to experience show up whether it is manifesting a desired partner or healing the relationship you are currently in.
"Trance mediumship" is often seen as a form of mental mediumship. Most trance mediums remain conscious during a communication period, wherein a spirit uses the medium's mind to communicate. The spirit or spirits using the medium's mind influences the mind with the thoughts being conveyed. The medium allows the ego to step aside for the message to be delivered. At the same time, one has awareness of the thoughts coming through and may even influence the message with one's own bias. Such a trance is not to be confused with sleepwalking, as the patterns are entirely different. Castillo (1995) states,
Scientists who study anomalistic psychology consider mediumship to be the result of fraud and psychological factors. Research from psychology for over a hundred years suggests that where there is not fraud, mediumship and Spiritualist practices can be explained by hypnotism, magical thinking and suggestion.[41][42] Trance mediumship, which according to Spiritualists is caused by discarnate spirits speaking through the medium, can be explained by dissociative identity disorder.[43]
Psychic Four was very motherly, constantly calling me "darling" and telling me how sorry she was for my loss. Her method of Emily-contact was a mix of prayer and coffee-dregs reading. She made me a small cup of Turkish coffee and when I finished the liquid, she placed the saucer on top of the cup, had me hold it with both hands while moving my arms in a circle three times and then flip the cup and saucer over and put it on the table. She put a blue glass cube with white circles on all six sides on top of the overturned cup and had me to put my finger on the cube and make a wish. I did, and she asked me for the photo. I handed her my phone. She put a small statue of a Turkish philosopher and an angel snow globe in front of me and told me to hold on to both and praying while she turned on her laptop and started playing weird reverb-heavy New Age music featuring a man and woman speaking about being intoxicated on love (not Beyonce style, unfortunately). She was going to ask Emily to make herself known to me.
He is the King and head honcho. He symbolizes masculine creativity. He represents authority, power, responsibility, leadership, passion and action, and is seen as a symbol of sex, the warrior and defender. He symbolizes new beginnings, competition and aggression. He can represent the father, husband, man in your life, boss, or any authority figure.
Went to the Hamilton Psychic Expo. Such an unbelievable experience I had with Kelly. I knew I wanted to see her from the moment she started introducing herself. She was definitely spot on. I had gained a lot of sense in knowing what I need to work on, how to focus and center myself. It hits the heart, but is a relief to know the things she spoke to me about. An amazing birthday gift treating myself to a reading from Kelly. � Sending lots of love your way!!! ��� Thank you�read more
Love psychics use various techniques for love readings. Some get wisdom from the spirit world, and others use cards and numerology, among other techniques. Using these tools, love psychics give you the second opinion you need on that certain someone, or on an event. Is he being truthful? What are his intentions? Is he long-term material? Should you keep dating him? All these questions and more can be answered during your session.
"The picture reading shows me what goes on in the past life and in this life ... So if it shows me she was your guardian angel at one point, she was a guardian angel," she said. She added that the reading wasn't accurate because I had come in with the intention to trick, that the energy I came in with was one about my sister which is what she picked up on, that the whole thing wasn't very "civilized" of me and that she'd be calling other psychics and warning them about me. She told me she's been tested by people who declared their intentions and passed their tests, and offered to give me a reading that would reveal secrets about me that not even my closest friends know. I declined.
A spirit guide is like a spiritual mediums second-hand man. A spirit guide is not a human spirit medium, but an evolved type of spirit whose sole purpose is to send the spiritual medium down the right path and provide other forms of spiritual guidance to a spiritual medium. Mediums who use spirit guides are called “operators” — they commune with their spirit guide to deliver messages from otherworldly entities.
We can all help psychic mediums to have an extremely clear path while on stage, or in a private reading, by sending them our love and acceptance. Say a little prayer to help the psychic medium receive perfect clarity in their communication. Don’t sit there with your arms folded and an angry look on your face. Lighten up. Relax. Have fun. One message that often comes through for people from their spirit-guides is that they need to lighten up—don’t be so serious! Many spirits have communicated to psychic mediums that when they crossed-over to the spirit world and looked back at their life, they were regretful that they were so darn serious and didn’t have more fun while they were here.
Kelly is a straight forward tell it like it is Psychic Medium. She uses her extra ordinary gifts to help people find direction and connect with loved ones who have crossed over. Kelly radiates joy, peace and love. Careful your belly may hurt from laughing so hard and your cheeks may get wet from the tears. But it is an experience you will never forget; and grow from. Xoread more
In 1991, Wendy Grossman in the New Scientist criticized the parapsychologist Stephen E. Braude for ignoring evidence of fraud in mediumship. According to Grossman "[Braude] accuses sceptics of ignoring the evidence he believes is solid, but himself ignores evidence that does not suit him. If a medium was caught cheating on some occasions, he says, the rest of that medium's phenomena were still genuine." Grossman came to the conclusion that Braude did not do proper research on the subject and should study "the art of conjuring."[180]
The psychical researcher Hereward Carrington exposed fraudulent mediums' tricks, such as those used in slate-writing, table-turning, trumpet mediumship, materializations, sealed-letter reading, and spirit photography.[29] The skeptic Joseph McCabe, in his book Is Spiritualism Based on Fraud? (1920), documented many fraudulent mediums and their tricks.[30]
Find the best level of detail: Your question should be focused but not overly detailed. Rather than looking at one aspect of a problem, find a way to look more broadly at it. For example, rather than asking how you can make your home life less chaotic, ask how you can better balance the family's schedules. That's a focused question. But do not go so far as to ask how you can coordinate baseball, soccer and Cub Scout schedules and still have family time — that's too detailed. Only include the minimum level of detail needed in order to express what you want to learn from the cards.
The VERITAS Research Program of the Laboratory for Advances in Consciousness and Health in the Department of Psychology at the University of Arizona, run by the parapsychologist Gary Schwartz, was created primarily to test the hypothesis that the consciousness (or identity) of a person survives physical death.[186] Schwartz claimed his experiments were indicative of survival, but do not yet provide conclusive proof.[187][188] The experiments described by Schwartz have received criticism from the scientific community for being inadequately designed and using poor controls.[189][190]
In English-speaking countries, where these games are not played, tarot cards are used primarily for divinatory purposes, usually using specially designed packs.[1] The cards are traced by some occult writers to ancient Egypt or the Kabbalah but there is no documented evidence of such origins or of the usage of tarot for divination before the 18th century.[1]
Speaking of readings, the first thing to know is that there actually are two different types of Tarot readings: question readings and open readings. In question readings, you are addressing a specific question. Tarot is not intended to answer specific yes or no questions. Most say it also shouldn't be used to make decisions, but instead should be used as a guide to help you make the decision yourself. For this reason, the way a question is stated is very important. Tarot reader and teacher Joan Bunning gives this advice: 

Illusionists, such as Joseph Rinn have staged 'fake' séances in which the sitters have claimed to have observed genuine supernatural phenomena.[44] Albert Moll studied the psychology of séance sitters. According to (Wolffram, 2012) "[Moll] argued that the hypnotic atmosphere of the darkened séance room and the suggestive effect of the experimenters' social and scientific prestige could be used to explain why seemingly rational people vouchsafed occult phenomena."[45] The psychologists Leonard Zusne and Warren Jones in their book Anomalistic Psychology: A Study of Magical Thinking (1989) wrote that spirits controls are the "products of the medium's own psychological dynamics."[46]
The Major Arcana (greater secrets), or trump cards, consists of 22 cards without suits: The Magician, The High Priestess, The Empress, The Emperor, The Hierophant, The Lovers, The Chariot, Strength, The Hermit, Wheel of Fortune, Justice, The Hanged Man, Death, Temperance, The Devil, The Tower, The Star, The Moon, The Sun, Judgement, The World, and The Fool. Cards from The Magician to The World are numbered in Roman numerals from I to XXI, while The Fool is the only unnumbered card, sometimes placed at the beginning of the deck as 0, or at the end as XXII.
The Major Arcana (greater secrets), or trump cards, consists of 22 cards without suits: The Magician, The High Priestess, The Empress, The Emperor, The Hierophant, The Lovers, The Chariot, Strength, The Hermit, Wheel of Fortune, Justice, The Hanged Man, Death, Temperance, The Devil, The Tower, The Star, The Moon, The Sun, Judgement, The World, and The Fool. Cards from The Magician to The World are numbered in Roman numerals from I to XXI, while The Fool is the only unnumbered card, sometimes placed at the beginning of the deck as 0, or at the end as XXII.
St. Edith Stein, Patron of Europe, converted to Catholicism after reading the autobiography of St. Teresa of Ávila on a holiday in Göttingen in 1921, at the age of 29. One evening Edith picked up an autobiography of St. Teresa of Ávila and read this book all night. "When I had finished the book, I said to myself: This is the truth." She went out the next day to buy a missal and a copy of the Catholic catechism.

Just as in any profession, mediums have specialties and areas of expertise. Unlike Allison Dubois in Medium, I don't work with the police in solving crimes. Or, unlike Melinda Gordon in The Ghost Whisperer, I don't help tormented souls cross over. Over the years, it has become very clear that my job lies in working with souls who have happily crossed over to the other side and, for the most part, are at peace. Sure, they may have regrets or unresolved issues, but they're not haunted or lost. Oftentimes, it's the living that are not at peace. The main goal of your deceased loved ones and spirit guides is to assist you in moving on, free of grief and struggle, so you can fulfill your life lessons and enjoy your time here on earth.
When I am writing and channeling simultaneously, I am very much ‘in the zone’, but far from unconscious. I would describe it more as being in an altered state of consciousness, rather than a ‘trance’. To get into this state I simply put my receptive right brain in the drivers seat and my rational left brain in the passenger seat. There are times when I give my rational mind permission to ask a question (which is usually answered) but, for the most part it is a passive observer of the process. I find it is important not to judge any of the material I’m channeling. I read it with my left brain filter after the channeling has finished.
Tasting or smelling “messages” from spirit may sound odd or useless. So here’s an example I’d like to share…During a reading, I had the pleasure of tasting AND smelling homemade, sweet molasses syrup – warm and delicious. This was how my client’s deceased aunt chose to identify herself when she came through. My client was absolutely delighted that her aunt chose this wonderful memory to share. The molasses was her aunt’s specialty and there were many happy memories connected with it. To me, it smelled and tasted so real my stomach growled.
Probably the cheesiest and most parodied form of spiritual mediumship, physical mediums are the “agents” or “substrates” which spirits draw energy from and manipulate that energy into noises or displays to prove their existence and presence in the room. In the 19th century, physical mediums were very popular, though whether as parlor games or genuine spiritual interests you just can’t tell. Physical mediums at this time were often complete charlatans, with complicated secret knocking mechanisms and other tricks to prove the existence of spirits. 

I had an online reading with Catherine Kirwan last night, she was so on point with her messages for ...me and gave me clarity on some issues I have going on in my life at the moment. She completely confirmed thoughts and feelings I have been having and mentioned things that there where no possible way of her knowing! I highly recommend her as a spiritual being and an awesome clairvoyant ♥ Love and Light See More
Here's what happened: The experienced psychographers showed lower levels of activity in the left hippocampus (limbic system), right superior temporal gyrus, and the frontal lobe regions of the brain during psychography compared to their normal (non-trance) writing. The frontal lobe areas are associated with reasoning, planning, generating language, movement, and problem solving, which means that the mediums were experiencing reduced focus, lessened self-awareness and fuzzy consciousness during psychography.
Together, the Major and Minor Arcana cards create a comprehensive pictorial language. It is important to remember that all the answers we seek exist innately within the deck, with each card illustrating a person, circumstance, or potential outcome. Since there are no secret puzzles or hidden agendas with tarot, the ability to discern meaning lies within your own narrative interpretation.
The 18th century saw tarot's greatest revival, during which it became one of the most popular card games in Europe, played everywhere except Ireland and Britain, the Iberian peninsula, and the Ottoman Balkans.[12] French tarot experienced a revival beginning in the 1970s and France has the strongest tarot gaming community. Regional tarot games—often known as tarock, tarok, or tarokk are widely played in central Europe within the borders of the former Austro-Hungarian empire.
No doubt a great importance in the paranormal field is the problem of fraud. The field of psychic research and spiritualism has been so notoriously full of charlatans, such as the Fox sisters and Eusapia Palladino–individuals who claim to have special power and gifts but who are actually conjurers who have hoodwinked scientists and the public as well–that we have to be especially cautious about claims made on their behalf.[58]
We’re here to learn love and act out of love. We must change, take action, grow and let go, over and over again, if we want the warmth of love to continue to surround us. But the truth is, we don’t always know what we should say, do, be, or change. We want to make our relationships work, but we are not sure what to do. That’s where Love & Relationships Psychics can help, sharing their years of experience and wisdom to transform our love life and relationships.

In 1785 C.E., the French occultist Eteilla (Jean-Baptiste Alliette) became the first professional tarot diviner. He popularized the use of the tarot as a divinatory tool to a wide audience, and was the first to develop and publish a set of correspondences, linking the cards to astrology, the four classical elements (earth, fire, water, air), and the four humors (black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm). These correspondences are still useful today.

A good psychic will offer you advice and useful suggestions that can help you handle tough situations more effectively. If your love life is suffering and you are not sure how to proceed with your relationship, a psychic can offer suggestions on how to make it work. If you are having a bad time in your career and looking for ways of improvement, a psychic can help you with same.

Cynthia has the rare ability to give her clients much more than accurate spiritual psychic predictions. She gives them insight into how and why things are happening in their lives and what they can do to start making a difference. Cynthia gives both practical and spiritual psychic guidance into personal relationships and major decisions. Cynthia’s clients often report feeling a more spiritual connection with themselves and their lives, and the usefulness of the information she is able to connect with is worth much more than they paid for. Cynthia wants to give her clients useful information, hope and confidence with practical and spiritual ways to proceed in the real world


It wasn’t until the 18th and 19th centuries that the tarot was taken up wholeheartedly by occult and esoteric societies for use in divination. A Swiss clergyman named Antoine Court de Gébelin wrote a treatise called Le Monde Primitif (The Primitive World) which connected the imagery in the Marseilles tarot to the mysteries of Isis and Thoth, thereby forever linking the two. (Aleister Crowley would later take this up in his creation of his own Thoth deck.) De Gébelin made many assertions regarding the connection between the tarot trumps and Egypt; these were later debunked by Egyptologists.
The physicist Kristian Birkeland exposed the fraud of the direct voice medium Etta Wriedt. Birkeland turned on the lights during a séance, snatched her trumpets and discovered that the "spirit" noises were caused by chemical explosions induced by potassium and water and in other cases by lycopodium powder.[160] The British medium Isa Northage claimed to materialize the spirit of a surgeon known as Dr. Reynolds. When photographs taken of Reynolds were analyzed by researchers they discovered that Northage looked like Reynolds with a glued stage beard.[161]
A psychic medium is someone who claims to have or is believed to have extrasensory capabilities that enable the person to perceive and interpret paranormal forces. Some experts believe that everyone has a certain amount of psychic power, sometimes called a “sixth sense,” that is really an intensive form of intuitive observation, according to psychics.co.uk. A psychic medium reading is a session during which the medium, or “reader,” analyzes a person’s “aura” (electric and magnetic energy surrounding each person) to explain a set of circumstances or offer a reasonable prognosis of events that may occur in the future. Many people claim to be an accurate psychic medium, but not all have paranormal abilities. The following information can help you avoid being taken advantage of by an imposter and perhaps lead you to someone who is an authentic psychic medium.
When I am writing and channeling simultaneously, I am very much ‘in the zone’, but far from unconscious. I would describe it more as being in an altered state of consciousness, rather than a ‘trance’. To get into this state I simply put my receptive right brain in the drivers seat and my rational left brain in the passenger seat. There are times when I give my rational mind permission to ask a question (which is usually answered) but, for the most part it is a passive observer of the process. I find it is important not to judge any of the material I’m channeling. I read it with my left brain filter after the channeling has finished.
In 1917, Edward Clodd analyzed the mediumship of the trance medium Gladys Osborne Leonard and came to the conclusion that Leonard had known her séance sitters before she had held the séances, and could have easily obtained such information by natural means.[116] The British psychiatrist Charles Arthur Mercier wrote in his book Spiritualism and Sir Oliver Lodge (1917) that Oliver Lodge had been duped into believing mediumship by trickery and his spiritualist views were based on assumptions and not scientific evidence.[117]
In 1970 two psychical researchers investigated the direct-voice medium Leslie Flint and found that all the "spirit" voices in his séance sounded exactly like himself and attributed his mediumship to "second-rate ventriloquism".[170] The medium Arthur Ford died leaving specific instructions that all of his files should be burned. In 1971 after his death, psychical researchers discovered his files but instead of burning them they were examined and discovered to be filled with obituaries, newspaper articles and other information, which enabled Ford to research his séance sitters backgrounds.[171]
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