In English-speaking countries, where these games are not played, tarot cards are used primarily for divinatory purposes, usually using specially designed packs.[1] The cards are traced by some occult writers to ancient Egypt or the Kabbalah but there is no documented evidence of such origins or of the usage of tarot for divination before the 18th century.[1]
In addition, the movement appealed to reformers, who fortuitously found that the spirits favored such causes du jour as abolition of slavery, and equal rights for women.[2] It also appealed to some who had a materialist orientation and rejected organized religion. In 1854 the utopian socialist Robert Owen was converted to spiritualism after "sittings" with the American medium Maria B. Hayden (credited with introducing spiritualism to England); Owen made a public profession of his new faith in his publication The Rational quarterly review and later wrote a pamphlet, The future of the Human race; or great glorious and future revolution to be effected through the agency of departed spirits of good and superior men and women.[22]
It is best to follow your instinct. Contact the spiritual psychic that feels right to you. If it feels right, click the “BOOK NOW” button below and schedule a spiritual psychic reading with Cynthia. If it doesn’t feel right, don’t schedule an appointment today. Take some time to think about it and wait until you are comfortable with your decision before you schedule your appointment. If you choose to experience a psychic spiritual reading with Cynthia it is easy and fast to schedule online. But feel free to contact us anyway you like.
An experiment conducted by the British Psychological Society in 2005 suggests that under the controlled condition of the experiment, people who claimed to be professional mediums do not demonstrate the mediumistic ability. In the experiment, mediums were assigned to work the participants chosen to be "sitters." The mediums claimed to contact the deceased who were related to the sitters. The research gather the numbers of the statements made and have the sitters rate the accuracy of the statements. The readings that were considered to be somewhat accurate by the sitters were very generalized, and the ones that were considered inaccurate were the ones that were very specific.[193]
In 1891 at a public séance with twenty sitters the medium Cecil Husk was caught leaning over a table pretending to be a spirit by covering his face with phosphor material.[87] The magician Will Goldston also exposed the fraud mediumship of Husk. In a séance Goldston attended a pale face materialization appeared in the room. Goldston wrote "I saw at once that it was a gauze mask, and that the moustache attached to it was loose at one side through lack of gum. I pulled at the mask. It came away, revealing the face of Husk."[88] The British materialization medium Annie Fairlamb Mellon was exposed as a fraud on October 12, 1894. During the séance a sitter seized the materialized spirit, and found it to be the Mellon on her knees with white muslin on her head and shoulders.[89]
The process is known as synchronicity, a term coined by psychologist Carl Jung to describe the temporally coincident occurrence of events. In synchronicity, there is no distinction between inner and outer. The choice of a card is exactly what your higher self already knows. This is what tarot occultists call the conversation with your higher self. The cards always work. It’s not magic—tarot cards are a sacred mirror.
In 1992, Richard Wiseman analyzed the Feilding report of Eusapia Palladino and argued that she employed a secret accomplice that could enter the room by a fake door panel positioned near the séance cabinet. Wiseman discovered this trick was already mentioned in a book from 1851, he also visited a carpenter and skilled magician who constructed a door within an hour with a false panel. The accomplice was suspected to be her second husband, who insisted on bringing Palladino to the hotel where the séances took place.[181] Massimo Polidoro and Gian Marco Rinaldi also analyzed the Feilding report but came to the conclusion no secret accomplice was needed as Palladino during the 1908 Naples séances could have produced the phenomena by using her foot.[182]
Another important distinction is that while psychic readings often focus on predicting future events, mediums primarily tune into past and present issues. It's my opinion that predicting the future, while sometimes helpful, runs the risk of disempowering people. Always remember that you do have a say in how your future unfolds. Despite what any psychic or medium may "see" in your future, it is important to remember you were given the gift of free will when you came into this world, and at any moment in time you can absolutely redirect your course and create the life you want by changing your thoughts and actions. Psychic information is often just insight into what potentially could happen based on the road you are currently traveling—and it should be used only as a guideline to help you make the best choices for yourself.
Probably the cheesiest and most parodied form of spiritual mediumship, physical mediums are the “agents” or “substrates” which spirits draw energy from and manipulate that energy into noises or displays to prove their existence and presence in the room. In the 19th century, physical mediums were very popular, though whether as parlor games or genuine spiritual interests you just can’t tell. Physical mediums at this time were often complete charlatans, with complicated secret knocking mechanisms and other tricks to prove the existence of spirits.
Ten mediums—five less expert and five experienced—were injected with a radioactive tracer to capture their brain activity during normal writing and during the practice of psychography, which involves allegedly channeling written communication from the "other side" while in a trance-like state. The subjects were scanned using SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) to highlight the areas of the brain that are active and inactive during the practice.
Modern tarot decks contain 78 cards, broken into two sections, the Major and Minor Arcana (modern terms, used only in relation to tarot used for divinatory purposes). The 56 Minor Arcana, or pips, are broken into four suits of fourteen cards each. These cards are numbered one (Ace) to ten, and there are four “court cards,” similar to a regular playing deck, only with one additional face card. The 22 Major Arcana, or trumps, are numbered 0 through 21, although some people exclude the Fool (0), considering this card to be outside the deck, a sort of “wild card,” rather like his descendant, the Joker.
Three, some psychic mediums receive messages telepathically, as an inner knowing or inner sensing. Messages are sent from the spirit’s mind to the psychic medium’s mind, and vice versa. Here, the spirit might flash a picture or a word in the psychic medium’s mind. Spirits have the ability to use the psychic medium’s brain as a file cabinet, and they will search through that psychic medium’s knowledge and experiences for ways to best communicate what they want to convey.
In accordance with law, all psychic services are for entertainment purposes only. Please read our terms, conditions, and copyright policy before using this site or our  services. If you enjoy the cards used on our website please click on our Tarot Deck Resource page where you can purchase these Tarot Decks from Amazon. Tarot Deck Resources Thank you.
There is no shortage of stunning, dynamic tarot decks. Since the mid-twentieth century, hundreds — if not thousands — of beautiful decks have been published. The Tarot de Marseille deck is an elegant reproduction of a classic French deck; the Motherpeace deck perfectly captures the ethereal spirit of the 1970s; the Black Power deck spotlights famous black luminaries.
I don't think any of these women intentionally bullshitted me. I'm sure they believe they possess abilities to communicate with the dead and tap into people's lives. But, again, out of four psychics—people who claim to have special powers to know greater truths—not one noticed that the very premise I approached them on was phoney. Maybe it's because I sprung for the cheaper ones. Maybe it's because I found them on Kijiji. Maybe I'm fantastic enough of a liar that, like Psychic Three said, I managed to conjure up enough spiritual energy to bring Emily into existence. (I guess there's also the possibility that they all knew I was lying but didn't care because I was paying them.) Or maybe psychic powers don't really exist.
I've tried to figure out what I truly want for myself and my relationships in the weeks following the reading. I haven't started going out of my way to meet people and form new connections, but I have been focusing more intently on my existing friendships. I also still occasionally worry that my loved ones aren't as invested as I am, but I know from my reading that this concern stems from letting my insecurities and self-doubt take over.

Another free tarot relationship reading is designed to analyze your relationships – whether they be personal, romantic or business – to give you a clear understanding of the dynamics within each relationship.  We also have a conflict resolution free tarot card reading, which helps you to more clearly see the circumstances surrounding an issue within your relationship and to learn how it can best be resolved


In 1958, the English-born Spiritualist C. Dorreen Phillips wrote of her experiences with a medium at Camp Chesterfield, Indiana: "In Rev. James Laughton's séances there are many Indians. They are very noisy and appear to have great power. [...] The little guides, or doorkeepers, are usually Indian boys and girls [who act] as messengers who help to locate the spirit friends who wish to speak with you."[20]
The psychical researchers Eric Dingwall and Harry Price re-published an anonymous work written by a former medium entitled Revelations of a Spirit Medium (1922) which exposed the tricks of mediumship and the fraudulent methods of producing "spirit hands".[132] Originally all the copies of the book were bought up by spiritualists and deliberately destroyed.[133] In 1923, the magician Carlos María de Heredia revealed how fake spirit hands could be made by using a rubber glove, paraffin and a jar of cold water.[134]

Not all spiritual mediums are the carnival barker variety — many people are happy to enjoy the “gift” of mediumship without exploiting it for money. These people, who seldom give “readings” and prefer instead to use their gift for personal reasons, come in every walk of life, work every profession, and may be working right next to you in your office.


Hi i'm a Psychic Medium and have been for many years. Psychic and Medium are two different gifts, when i'm using my Psychic abilities i am reading a persons future, i'm also an Empath which means i can feel a persons emotions completely and accurately when they are close to me and from a distance. A Medium is always Psychic but a Psychic is not a Medium. A Mediums speaks with the Spiritual World, they have the ability to speak with passed over spirits and most often pass messages on to people who wish to hear what their deceased loved ones have to say and relay messages from that person to their loved one. A Medium does many other things including helping lost souls who are trapped on The Other Side and can't or won't move on towards The Light where we ultimately travel to. I don't ever need to go into a trance like state, this is not necessary to channel or to communicate with spirits, for example if i decide to have contact with a spirit, i simply tune in and i'm there. As a Psychic Medium i can tune in or out as i please which is important because if i keep myself tuned in continuously wherever i may be, i'm tuned into the thoughts and emotions and personal lives and the future of the people surrounding me. That's definitely not what i want to do, not only is it time consuming and sometimes dull, i only do readings for people who ask for them. It's unethical to pry into peoples lives against their will. There are endless things we can do, those i mentioned are a few. We also have our Guides who help us through our work not like others who believe the information when reading a persons future and helping them with their present lives comes from the Psychic or the Medium because it does not come from us our Spiritual Guides tell us the information and we pass it on, this is the very reason why the information is accurate. We are in a direct crystal clear connection to all that's in relation to The Spiritual World. There are Spiritual Laws that we must abide by we cannot do anything that is forbidden by their law, if a person is unethical there are punishments that take place, such as if you break a rule you can get a Karmic Block or things can get reversed on you and so forth. Thank you for your time, i wish you all the very best on your journey xx
No, the psychic said, because it had been her time. Throughout the eight-minute reading, she repeatedly told me Emily's death was meant to be. Emily was sad that she left me behind, but she's in a positive place now and is the reason why I feel a presence around my house (it's her watching over me and I should try talking to her). I also learned that after death, souls hang around Earth for six weeks which is why I dreamt of Emily a lot right after she died.
Some scientists of the period who investigated spiritualism also became converts. They included chemist Robert Hare, physicist William Crookes (1832–1919) and evolutionary biologist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913).[13][14] Nobel laureate Pierre Curie took a very serious scientific interest in the work of medium Eusapia Palladino.[15] Other prominent adherents included journalist and pacifist William T. Stead (1849–1912)[16] and physician and author Arthur Conan Doyle (1859–1930).[17]
This is a free tarot reading, yet it has significant value. Many of us are confronted with questions like "Does he love me?" or "Does she love me?" or "What'll be the future of my relationship?" and it is difficult to approach such questions of love and sentiment. The pattern of the present love tarot provides you with guidance, touching upon all relevant aspects.
Spirituality is an essential part of a fully experienced life. It touches on the deepest part of an individual’s being, as well as the shared experiences of all humans and, more broadly, all living things. Spiritual psychics tap into this mysterious aspect of existence to reveal truths about you, your loved ones, and the underlying ties that connect us all.
Many scientists who investigated the phenomenon also became converts.[citation needed] They included chemist and physicist William Crookes (1832–1919) and evolutionary biologist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913).[23] Nobel laureate Pierre Curie was impressed by the mediumistic performances of Eusapia Palladino and advocated their scientific study.[24] Other prominent adherents included journalist and pacifist William T. Stead (1849–1912)[25] and physician and author Arthur Conan Doyle (1859–1930).[21]
There are many Psychic websites offering readings with a Psychic Medium and Spiritualist Medium, so it can be difficult to choose who to speak to and to know which is the best for a high quality reading. At TheCircle we carefully choose our Psychic Mediums and unless they give outstanding readings during the test process, they will not be a part of our team. We ensure that our Psychic Medium readings are a cut above the rest, offering excellent evidence from our compassionate and gifted Readers, to make sure that you have an amazing experience that leaves you feeling empowered and inspired with peace of mind for your loved ones, and your future.
A medium is a person who is a conduit between the physical world and the spiritual world, where the person opens himself up to be indwelt by a spirit so the spirit can communicate in our world.  Mediumship is condemned in scripture.  Lev. 20:27, “Now a man or a woman who is a medium or a spiritist shall surely be put to death.”  This harsh treatment in the Old Testament was in place because mediums are ultimately in contact with demonic spirits and are being deceived.
I was 13 when my mom dragged my brother and me to a "psychic." We were visiting family in Malaysia and somewhere amongst a few palm oil plantations was the house of an old woman who claimed to be able to channel Buddha. My mother was enthralled during the hour-long ordeal, during which the woman basically rolled her eyes often so the whites were showing, dropped her voice a few octaves, and made astonishingly mundane statements that could've applied to anyone (examples: our house had ants out front; my grandma was old and having some health problems). Combined with my love of Harry Houdini (who spent the last few years of his life debunking psychics and mediums) and teen angst that made me hate everything my parents liked, the experience left me convinced that psychics were con artists who separated vulnerable and desperate people from their cash in exchange for poor acting.
This is a free tarot reading, yet it has significant value. Many of us are confronted with questions like "Does he love me?" or "Does she love me?" or "What'll be the future of my relationship?" and it is difficult to approach such questions of love and sentiment. The pattern of the present love tarot provides you with guidance, touching upon all relevant aspects.
An experiment conducted by the British Psychological Society in 2005 suggests that under the controlled condition of the experiment, people who claimed to be professional mediums do not demonstrate the mediumistic ability. In the experiment, mediums were assigned to work the participants chosen to be "sitters." The mediums claimed to contact the deceased who were related to the sitters. The research gather the numbers of the statements made and have the sitters rate the accuracy of the statements. The readings that were considered to be somewhat accurate by the sitters were very generalized, and the ones that were considered inaccurate were the ones that were very specific.[193]
Let's talk about the structure of the deck and the meanings of its cards. Any magical practice — tarot, astrology, or spell work — is based on the Hermetic axiom "as above, so below." In other words, the macrocosm of the cosmos is reflected in the microcosm of individual experience. Accordingly, the entire universe exists within a tarot deck, with each card representing a person, place, or event. These symbols are depicted in both the Major Arcana cards, which speak to greater secrets, and the Minor Arcana cards, which speak to lesser secrets.
In this environment, the writings of Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772) and the teachings of Franz Mesmer (1734–1815) provided an example for those seeking direct personal knowledge of the afterlife. Swedenborg, who claimed to communicate with spirits while awake, described the structure of the spirit world. Two features of his view particularly resonated with the early spiritualists: first, that there is not a single Hell and a single Heaven, but rather a series of higher and lower heavens and hells; second, that spirits are intermediates between God and humans, so that the divine sometimes uses them as a means of communication.[1] Although Swedenborg warned against seeking out spirit contact, his works seem to have inspired in others the desire to do so.
In September 1878 the British medium Charles Williams and his fellow-medium at the time, A. Rita, were detected in trickery at Amsterdam. During the séance a materialized spirit was seized and found to be Rita and a bottle of phosphorus oil, muslin and a false beard were found amongst the two mediums.[82] In 1882 C. E. Wood was exposed in a séance in Peterborough. Her Indian spirit control "Pocka" was found to be the medium on her knees, covered in muslin.[83]

Focus on yourself: If the reading is for you, make sure your question centers on you rather than on someone else who you think may be the root of your problem. For example, asking why your teenager is experimenting with drugs is focusing on them, not you. Asking what role you play in your teen's decision to experiment with drugs brings the question back to you.
Some scientists of the period who investigated spiritualism also became converts. They included chemist Robert Hare, physicist William Crookes (1832–1919) and evolutionary biologist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913).[13][14] Nobel laureate Pierre Curie took a very serious scientific interest in the work of medium Eusapia Palladino.[15] Other prominent adherents included journalist and pacifist William T. Stead (1849–1912)[16] and physician and author Arthur Conan Doyle (1859–1930).[17]
When deciding whether to consult with a local medium in person, check for a couple of things before scheduling. Does the person live in a decent or nice neighborhood? If not, that ought to raise questions about her ability to accurately advise clients. While it is common knowledge that mediums, like doctors, do not “treat” themselves due to the subjective nature of self-study, they should be able to boast a reasonable success rate with clients, which means the clients would want to return periodically as well as refer friends and associates. This would lead to significant income for an accurate psychic medium, so that she would be able to afford a comfortable home or office in a pretty good neighborhood. If the home or office appears run-down or quite modest, this may mean the reader is not as accurate as she claims. Not all psychics live in mansions, of course, but successful ones probably reflect an element of status.
The earliest evidence of a tarot deck used for cartomancy comes from an anonymous manuscript from around 1750 which documents rudimentary divinatory meanings for the cards of the Tarocco Bolognese.[14][15] The popularization of esoteric tarot started with Antoine Court and Jean-Baptiste Alliette (Etteilla) in Paris during the 1780s, using the Tarot of Marseilles.[16] After French tarot players abandoned the Marseilles tarot in favor of the Tarot Nouveau around 1900, the Marseilles pattern is now used mostly by cartomancers.
So, there you have it, my first (and probably last, since I'm apparently shitlisted) foray into psychic-busting. I'm not going to tell people to stop seeing psychics - if it makes you happy and you have the cash, go wild. Whether you go in as a believer or as a shithead like me, the psychics are the ones making bank, so either way, in the end, they win. And who knows, maybe I have a sister I don't know about whose birth and death dates I guessed right, in which case, I should set up my own psychic shop. I'm sure Emily would approve.
If what the psychic medium says doesn’t make sense to you, just say you don’t know or don’t understand what they are talking about. Don’t try to make it fit! If the psychic medium asks if you had a dog named Freckles, don’t say, “I had a cat named Mittens!” Don’t try to make the message fit if it doesn’t. The psychic medium will figure out what the message means without you interpreting it yourself.
When you experience a reading with TheCircle Mediums you will without doubt know that you are speaking to a genuine Spiritual Medium from the experience that you have. However, we can reassure you that all of our Psychics, Mediums and Clairvoyant Readers are experienced with their skills and are taken through a thorough test process before they are allowed to join us. We only accept Readers who meet our high standards.
Sometimes a person seeking at a crossroads encounters a rare individual with unusual knowledge: cards, palms, dice, crystal balls, tea leaves.  You wouldn’t be here now if you weren’t at a crossroads. What if you’re on the verge of some great discovery? There is no such thing as coincidence. Only inevitability. Call me for a reading now and reclaim what you might have missed.
Cynthia has the rare ability to give her clients much more than accurate spiritual psychic predictions. She gives them insight into how and why things are happening in their lives and what they can do to start making a difference. Cynthia gives both practical and spiritual psychic guidance into personal relationships and major decisions. Cynthia’s clients often report feeling a more spiritual connection with themselves and their lives, and the usefulness of the information she is able to connect with is worth much more than they paid for. Cynthia wants to give her clients useful information, hope and confidence with practical and spiritual ways to proceed in the real world
In 1880 the American stage mentalist Washington Irving Bishop published a book revealing how mediums would use secret codes as the trick for their clairvoyant readings.[84] The Seybert Commission was a group of faculty at the University of Pennsylvania who in 1884–1887 exposed fraudulent mediums such as Pierre L. O. A. Keeler and Henry Slade.[85] The Fox sisters confessed to fraud in 1888. Margaret Fox revealed that she and her sister had produced the "spirit" rappings by cracking their toe joints.[86]
Tarot cards have been greatly popularized, but can be often regarded solely as entertainment. Traditional decks are available in chain bookstores. New decks also frequently appear in New Age bookstores. Though not requiring psychic abilities, Tarot cards can be used as a psychic or cold reading tool and Tarot readings are common at psychic fairs.[5][23]
Colin Fry was exposed in 1992 when during a séance the lights were unexpectedly turned on and he was seen holding a spirit trumpet in the air, which the audience had been led to believe was being levitated by spiritual energy.[183] In 1997, Massimo Polidoro and Luigi Garlaschelli produced wax-moulds directly from one's hand which were exactly the same copies as Gustav Geley obtained from Franek Kluski, which are kept at the Institute Metapsychique International.[184]
This is an organized event that can take place in an auditorium, church or even a TV studio. Participants are picked out from the audience randomly, and the spiritualist or medium passes messages, either directly from the spiritual realm or via his or her personal spirit guide. It’s a good way to see how it all works, but you are playing a numbers game as the chances of you receiving a message are remote.
Weeklyuniverse.com reports that many nonpsychic persons are hired as telephone mediums to work with clients by phone rather than in person. You probably have seen the ads in newspapers or magazines, and sometimes on television or radio: “Call 1-800-PREDICT (or something along those lines) to find out what’s in store for you.” Housewives, unemployed actors, and college students who need a part-time income often fill these roles at a low hourly pay rate.

The Polish medium Stanisława Tomczyk's levitation of a glass beaker was exposed and replicated in 1910 by the magician William S. Marriott by means of a hidden thread.[114] The Italian medium Lucia Sordi was exposed in 1911, she was bound to a chair by psychical researchers but would free herself during her séances. The tricks of another Italian medium Linda Gazzera were revealed in the same year, she would release her hands and feet from control in her séances and use them. Gazzera would not permit anyone to search her before a séance sitting, as she concealed muslin and other objects in her hair.[115]
When looking for a spiritual medium for your own personal readings, you need to decide ahead of time how much of a financial commitment you can make. Believe me, you can spend anywhere from a few bucks per minute on the phone with a phone based spiritual medium to hundreds of dollars for a single half hour session with the country’s better known psychics. If you just want to get your toes wet to see how you like spiritual medium readings, call a psychic that you’ve looked up online and that shares some good reviews and testimonials. These phone readings run anywhere from $15 to into the hundreds, depending on which psychic you pick and how long you talk.

Doyle, who lost his son Kingsley in World War I, was also a member of the Ghost Club. Founded in London in 1862, its focus was the scientific study of alleged paranormal activities in order to prove (or refute) the existence of paranormal phenomena. Famous members of the club included Charles Dickens, Sir William Crookes, Sir William F. Barrett, and Harry Price.[26] The Paris séances of Eusapia Palladino were attended by an enthusiastic Pierre Curie and a dubious Marie Curie. The celebrated New York City physician, John Franklin Gray, was a prominent spiritualist.[27]
Before setting a consultation appointment, it is important my client understands I work with prayers of protection and thanks to God. My intention is to help my clients achieve their greater good. If there is information the client is not “supposed” to have, then the information will not be revealed to me. I do share everything that IS revealed to me, with no judgments or holding back.
Diversity of belief among organized spiritualists has led to a few schisms, the most notable occurring in the U.K. in 1957 between those who held the movement to be a religion sui generis (of its own with unique characteristics), and a minority who held it to be a denomination within Christianity. In the United States, this distinction can be seen between the less Christian organization, the National Spiritualist Association of Churches, and the more Christian spiritual church movement. 

Keen is a Leader in Psychic Advice Keen also has many psychic reading options outside of spiritual healing readers. If you have questions about your love life or relationships, you can get a love reading from a Keen psychic. If you are interested in knowing your future through cards, Keen has online tarot readers, cartomancers, and angel card readers who are proven experts in that medium. If you wish for an astrology reading, Keen has astrologers who specialize in subjects such as Vedic astrology, Mayan astrology, and Chinese astrology. No matter what you're looking for, Keen.com can get you in touch with specialists in all of these very diverse and enlightening subjects.
The fifth, and final, thing you should know before going to a psychic medium demonstration or private reading is a piece of advice my friend John says best before every one of his demonstrations, “Don’t Feed The Medium!” If the psychic medium tells you that your Uncle Charlie is present. Don’t blurt out, “Oh, my goodness, my Uncle Charlie was a police officer who lost his leg in the war and died two years ago in a car accident!” Let the psychic medium tell you these things. If you offer that information yourself, then you miss out on the excitement and validation you could gain if the psychic medium was about to tell you those details. 
A Spiritual Medium has the ability to link with the spirit world and connect with your loved ones who have passed over, giving reassuring evidence of who they are & how they relate to you. A Spiritual Medium acts like a middle person, similar to a translator – interpreting messages and guidance from spirit and loved ones in the spirit world and passing them on to the living.
One, some psychic mediums see spirits. Not every spirit chooses to show himself or herself to a psychic medium who has this ability, but many of them do. If the psychic medium can see spirits, part of the communication will be based on sight. A psychic medium may see something in their mind’s eye (as an inner vision), or they may see spirits the way they see other people (as a physical manifestation, except the spirits are more ethereal, ghostly).

The Danish medium Einer Nielsen was investigated by a committee from the Kristiania University in Norway, 1922 and discovered in a séance that his ectoplasm was fake.[130] In 1923 the Polish medium Jan Guzyk was exposed as a fraud in a series of séances in Sorbonne in Paris. Guzyk would use his elbows and legs to move objects around the room and touch the sitters. According to Max Dessoir the trick of Guzyk was to use his "foot for psychic touches and sounds".[131]
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