These details were from the falsified Facebook accounts for the pair which were prepared by a group of skeptics in advance of the reading, and Gerbic and Edward were not aware of the specific information in these accounts.[212] This blinding was done in order to avoid John later being able to claim he obtained the false information by reading Gerbic and Edward's minds.[209][210] In her report, Gerbic also revealed that during an after-show private event, John disclosed in a group setting that at least one of the people in the audience which he did a reading about was actually his own student.[213][209][210]


In 1918, Joseph Jastrow wrote about the tricks of Eusapia Palladino who was an expert at freeing her hands and feet from the control in the séance room.[121] In the séance room Palladino would move curtains from a distance by releasing a jet of air from a rubber bulb that she had in her hand.[122] According to the psychical researcher Harry Price "Her tricks were usually childish: long hairs attached to small objects in order to produce 'telekinetic movements'; the gradual substitution of one hand for two when being controlled by sitters; the production of 'phenomena' with a foot which had been surreptitiously removed from its shoe and so on."[123]
^ Brian Righi. (2008). Ghosts, Apparitions and Poltergeists: An Exploration of the Supernatural through History. Llewellyn Publications. Llewellyn Publications. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-7387-1363-2 "One medium of the 1920s, Mina Crandon, became famous for producing ectoplasm during her sittings. At the height of the séance, she was even able to produce a tiny ectoplasmic hand from her navel, which waved about in the darkness. Her career ended when Harvard biologists were able to examine the tiny hand and found it to be nothing more than a carved piece of animal liver."

In 1954, the psychical researcher Rudolf Lambert published a report revealing details about a case of fraud that was covered up by many early members of the Institute Metapsychique International (IMI).[166] Lambert who had studied Gustav Geley's files on the medium Eva Carrière discovered photographs depicting fraudulent ectoplasm taken by her companion Juliette Bisson.[166] Various "materializations" were artificially attached to Eva's hair by wires. The discovery was never published by Geley. Eugéne Osty (the director of the institute) and members Jean Meyer, Albert von Schrenck-Notzing and Charles Richet all knew about the fraudulent photographs but were firm believers in mediumship phenomena so demanded the scandal be kept secret.[166]
In the late 1920s and early 1930s there were around one quarter of a million practising Spiritualists and some two thousand Spiritualist societies in the UK in addition to flourishing microcultures of platform mediumship and 'home circles'.[18] Spiritualism continues to be practised, primarily through various denominational Spiritualist churches in the United States, Canada, Australia and the United Kingdom. In the United Kingdom, over 340 Spiritualist churches and centres open their doors to the public and free demonstrations of mediumship are regularly performed.[19]
Senses used by mental mediums are sometimes defined differently from in other paranormal fields. A medium is said to have psychic abilities but not all psychics function as mediums. The term clairvoyance, for instance, may include seeing spirit and visions instilled by the spirit world. The Parapsychological Association defines "clairvoyance" as information derived directly from an external physical source.[37] https://drive.google.com/file/d/1VIU5TggD_qeBY0_0IYMP8a8P144mmxIT/view?usp=sharing
The British medium William Roy earned over £50,000 from his séance sitters. He confessed to fraud in 1958 revealing the microphone and trick-apparatus that he had used.[169] The automatic writings of the Irish medium Geraldine Cummins were analyzed by psychical researchers in the 1960s and they revealed that she worked as a cataloguer at the National Library of Ireland and took information from various books that would appear in her automatic writings about ancient history.[170] https://drive.google.com/file/d/1j9OXTL0I-NYzWv7GGPZjWvnWCNACHJFh/view?usp=sharing
Nowadays more and more people turn to online psychic mediums instead of visiting a psychic medium in real life. Online psychic chat rooms have many benefits and for that reason they are becoming more popular by the day. You can chat with the best psychics and mediums from the comfort of your home without having to make an appointment! Online psychic medium chat rooms are 24/7 available for people from all around the world. 
The British journalist Ruth Brandon published the book The Spiritualists (1983) which exposed the fraud of the Victorian mediums.[5] The book received positive reviews and has been influential to skeptics of spiritualism.[179] The British apport medium Paul McElhoney was exposed as a fraud during a séance in Osset, Yorkshire in 1983. The tape recorder that McElhoney took to his séances was investigated and a black tape was discovered bound around the battery compartment and inside carnation flowers were found as well as a key-ring torch and other objects.[180] https://drive.google.com/file/d/1zadDXcCat58-hiq6g8PyUmWdKV01WWjl/view?usp=sharing
The magician Julien Proskauer revealed that the levitating trumpet of Jack Webber was a trick. Close examination of photographs reveal Webber to be holding a telescopic reaching rod attached to the trumpet, and sitters in his séances only believed it to have levitated because the room was so dark they could not see the rod. Webber would cover the rod with crepe paper to disguise its real construction.[165]
Some scientists of the period who investigated Spiritualism also became converts. They included chemist Robert Hare, physicist William Crookes (1832–1919) and evolutionary biologist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913).[13][14] Nobel laureate Pierre Curie took a very serious scientific interest in the work of medium Eusapia Palladino.[15] Other prominent adherents included journalist and pacifist William T. Stead (1849–1912)[16] and physician and author Arthur Conan Doyle (1859–1930).[17]

A psychic chat reading can be very helpful when you are looking for professional guidance, insight, advice and answers regarding any topic in life. When you don't know what step to take next or when you can't seem to get out of a situation then a good psychic can help you with some accurate advice. They can help you to see new pathways that you couldn't see before. Psychics can of course also give you some accurate future predictions so that you can prepare yourself for what's to come.
In 1917, Edward Clodd analyzed the mediumship of the trance medium Gladys Osborne Leonard and came to the conclusion that Leonard had known her séance sitters before she had held the séances, and could have easily obtained such information by natural means.[119] The British psychiatrist Charles Arthur Mercier wrote in his book Spiritualism and Sir Oliver Lodge (1917) that Oliver Lodge had been duped into believing mediumship by trickery and his spiritualist views were based on assumptions and not scientific evidence.[120] https://drive.google.com/file/d/1LebjUFtNBfTFfNkHrRdXaYsh6DfGnxvi/view?usp=sharing
Knowing which questions to ask a psychic takes a little thought because the questions you think you want to ask will deliver little to no results. For example, passive questions like, "Will I ever get married?" "When will I meet my next boyfriend?" are impossible to answer because the future is not bound and determined. Instead, ask questions that can aid a current situation that could affect your life down the road - like marriage. A good example would be something like, "My partner and I seem to be hitting a wall. What are the most effective tactics for improving my relationship?" You also want to avoid questions that are begging for reassurance (Should I get divorced?) or that are full of doubt. Remember that standing up for yourself will get you farther than looking for a hand to hold. Instead, ask results-driven questions like, "Why am I no longer as connected with my partner now than when I was first married." The more precise you are with your questions, the better reading you will receive, so put a pen to paper before jumping on the phone.
^ "Glossary of Key Words Frequently Used in Parapsychology" Archived 2010-12-24 at the Wayback Machine, Parapsychological Association website. "Materialization: A phenomenon of physical mediumship in which living entities or inanimate objects are caused to take form, sometimes from ectoplasm." Retrieved January 24, 2006 "Medium – Definition". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 23 March 2007.
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A series of mediumistic séances known as the Scole Experiment took place between 1993 and 1998 in the presence of the researchers David Fontana, Arthur Ellison and Montague Keen. This has produced photographs, audio recordings and physical objects which appeared in the dark séance room (known as apports).[188] A criticism of the experiment was that it was flawed because it did not rule out the possibility of fraud. The skeptical investigator Brian Dunning wrote the Scole experiments fail in many ways. The séances were held in the basement of two of the mediums, only total darkness was allowed with no night vision apparatus as it might "frighten the spirits away". The box containing the film was not examined and could easily have been accessible to fraud. And finally, even though many years have passed, there has been no follow-up, no further research by any credible agency or published accounts.[188]
In 1958, the English-born Spiritualist C. Dorreen Phillips wrote of her experiences with a medium at Camp Chesterfield, Indiana: "In Rev. James Laughton's séances there are many Indians. They are very noisy and appear to have great power. [...] The little guides, or doorkeepers, are usually Indian boys and girls [who act] as messengers who help to locate the spirit friends who wish to speak with you."[20]
Attempts to communicate with the dead and other living human beings, aka spirits, have been documented back to early human history. The story of the Witch of Endor (In the most recent edition of the NIV witch is rendered medium in the passage) tells of one who raised the spirit of the deceased prophet Samuel to allow the Hebrew king Saul to question his former mentor about an upcoming battle, as related in the Books of Samuel in the Jewish Tanakh (the basis of the Old Testament).
A psychic chat reading can be very helpful when you are looking for professional guidance, insight, advice and answers regarding any topic in life. When you don't know what step to take next or when you can't seem to get out of a situation then a good psychic can help you with some accurate advice. They can help you to see new pathways that you couldn't see before. Psychics can of course also give you some accurate future predictions so that you can prepare yourself for what's to come. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1hBK16iZTcUD9NWhtZFwHa4Pz9JfvO8Qq/view?usp=sharing
‘Medium’ means acting as a channel for contacting and communicating with the spirits which may include the spirits of the dead and also other divine spirits, guiding spirits, angels, archangels and even cosmic powers. Clairvoyance means seeing things clearly beyond the normal senses. A clairvoyant sees the energy, images and visions not only within himself with his mind’s eye but also outside his body—beyond the veils of matter, space, and time.
In the 1930s Harry Price (director of the National Laboratory of Psychical Research) had investigated the medium Helen Duncan and had her perform a number of test séances. She was suspected of swallowing cheesecloth which was then regurgitated as "ectoplasm".[151] Price had proven through analysis of a sample of ectoplasm produced by Duncan, that it was made of cheesecloth.[152] Helen Duncan would also use a doll made of a painted papier-mâché mask draped in an old sheet which she pretended to her sitters was a spirit.[153] The photographs taken by Thomas Glendenning Hamilton in the 1930s of ectoplasm reveal the substance to be made of tissue paper and magazine cut-outs of people. The famous photograph taken by Hamilton of the medium Mary Ann Marshall depicts tissue paper with a cut out of Arthur Conan Doyle's head from a newspaper. Skeptics have suspected that Hamilton may have been behind the hoax.[154]
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In 1910 at a séance in Grenoble, France the apport medium Charles Bailey produced two live birds in the séance room. Bailey was unaware that the dealer he had bought the birds from was present in the séance and he was exposed as a fraud.[114] The psychical researcher Eric Dingwall observed the medium Bert Reese in New York and claimed to have discovered his billet reading tricks.[115] The most detailed account at exposing his tricks (with diagrams) was by the magician Theodore Annemann.[116]


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Magicians have a long history of exposing the fraudulent methods of mediumship. Early debunkers included Chung Ling Soo, Henry Evans and Julien Proskauer.[62] Later magicians to reveal fraud were Joseph Dunninger, Harry Houdini and Joseph Rinn. Rose Mackenberg, a private investigator who worked with Houdini during the 1920s, was among the most prominent debunkers of psychic fraud during the mid-20th century.[63] https://drive.google.com/file/d/16K4qFAF6q61QlZP1cN9QJhwSB3OgzOIw/view?usp=sharing
16+ years experience, over 20K readings & 4 years on Oranum. Clairvoyant,Clairsentient. Tarot expert,Rune,Lenormand, IChing,Dowser, Chinese Fortune Teller Pendulum, Reiki Master, Life Coach. Specialities: reconciling relationships, Predictions Love life/Career/Finance/Court Case. Soul mates/Twin flame confirmation. Guidance /Time frame for predictions.No Sugar Coat no false hope.Only reveal Truth.
No, you do not need a credit card to register for a free account. After registration you can immediately start a totally free chat with a psychic of your choice. There are many psychics, mediums and fortune tellers available for unlimited free chat! There is absolutely no deposit needed to talk to the psychics! And all free psychic chat rooms are without further obligations! https://drive.google.com/file/d/1k02Lw6azLve90mye0m14Mn-ZD0j1dqZX/view?usp=sharing

In 1930 the Polish medium Stanisława P. was tested at the Institut Metapsychique in Paris. French psychical researcher Eugéne Osty suspected in the séance that Stanislawa had freed her hand from control. Secret flashlight photographs that were taken revealed that her hand was free and she had moved objects on the séance table.[149] It was claimed by spiritualists that during a series of séances in 1930 the medium Eileen J. Garrett channeled secret information from the spirit of the Lieutenant Herbert Carmichael Irwin who had died in the R101 crash a few days before the séance. Researcher Melvin Harris who studied the case wrote that the information described in Garrett's séances were "either commonplace, easily absorbed bits and pieces, or plain gobblede-gook. The so-called secret information just doesn't exist."[150]
In the 1920s the British medium Charles Albert Beare duped the Spiritualist organization the Temple of Light into believing he had genuine mediumship powers. In 1931 Beare published a confession in the newspaper Daily Express. In the confession he stated "I have deceived hundreds of people…. I have been guilty of fraud and deception in spiritualistic practices by pretending that I was controlled by a spirit guide…. I am frankly and whole-heartedly sorry that I have allowed myself to deceive people."[124] Due to the exposure of William Hope and other fraudulent spiritualists, Arthur Conan Doyle in the 1920s led a mass resignation of eighty-four members of the Society for Psychical Research, as they believed the Society was opposed to spiritualism.[125] https://drive.google.com/file/d/1EG_u7IaN5240LzyhuCrOqXAOeQSPsOFe/view?usp=sharing
From time to time, it may be helpful to seek out the counsel of someone objective for guidance or connection with spirit, and/or to gain a clearer read on your life. If a psychic, medium or any other intuitive healer speaks to you, I encourage you to set your intentions and then simply let go and go with the flow. Spirit will guide you as to who and what is in your highest and best good in that moment. Also, please remember that no one knows you better than yourself, and no one has a closer connection with your deceased loved ones and spiritual guides than you do. By learning to go within, listen to and trust your own inner voice, you gain access to everything you'll ever need to know. And what could be better than that? 

The British medium Francis Ward Monck was investigated by psychical researchers and discovered to be a fraud. On November 3, 1876 during the séance a sitter demanded that Monck be searched. Monck ran from the room, locked himself in another room and escaped out of a window. A pair of stuffed gloves was found in his room, as well as cheesecloth, reaching rods and other fraudulent devices in his luggage.[80] After a trial Monck was convicted for his fraudulent mediumship and was sentenced to three months in prison.[81]
In 1991, Wendy Grossman in the New Scientist criticized the parapsychologist Stephen E. Braude for ignoring evidence of fraud in mediumship. According to Grossman "[Braude] accuses sceptics of ignoring the evidence he believes is solid, but himself ignores evidence that does not suit him. If a medium was caught cheating on some occasions, he says, the rest of that medium's phenomena were still genuine." Grossman came to the conclusion that Braude did not do proper research on the subject and should study "the art of conjuring."[183] https://drive.google.com/file/d/1FQpaQ5Yg1C3zQMTeg0JudS53TaLVGdqN/view?usp=sharing
Looking for answers about life, love, and relationships? Let our genuine love psychics help you attain clarity and answers to your questions about the relationships you have with the people around you. Whether you are struggling with co-workers, your significant other, or your family, our psychics can help you gain insight into your life and the importance of the relationships you have. https://drive.google.com/file/d/136k1dUqs003MAKVmKauzw35glJslfOOD/view?usp=sharing
^ Joseph McCabe. (1920). Spiritualism: A Popular History from 1847. Dodd, Mead and Company. pp. 110–12. A Mr. Merrifield was present at one of the sittings. Home's usual phenomena were messages, the moving of objects (presumably at a distance), and the playing of an accordion which he held with one hand under the shadow of the table. But from an early date in America he had been accustomed occasionally to "materialise" hands (as it was afterwards called). The sitters would, in the darkness, faintly see a ghostly hand and arm, or they might feel the touch of an icy limb. Mr. Merrifield and the other sitters saw a "spirit-hand" stretch across the faintly lit space of the window. But Mr. Merrifield says that Home sat, or crouched, low in a low chair, and that the "spirit-hand" was a false limb on the end of Home's arm. At other times, he says, he saw that Home was using his foot." https://drive.google.com/file/d/1PpwyDe2ua5cGzC26TAXnYrB9K-K6WVEp/view?usp=sharing

After her death in the 1980s the medium Doris Stokes was accused of fraud, by author and investigator Ian Wilson. Wilson stated that Mrs Stokes planted specific people in her audience and did prior research into her sitters.[177] Rita Goold a physical medium during the 1980s was accused of fraud, by the psychical researcher Tony Cornell. He claimed she would dress up as the spirits in her séances and would play music during them which provided cover for her to change clothes.[178] https://drive.google.com/file/d/1MnjAimMff9pUNEAtJPuViSWvmeyupncq/view?usp=sharing


After her death in the 1980s the medium Doris Stokes was accused of fraud, by author and investigator Ian Wilson. Wilson stated that Mrs Stokes planted specific people in her audience and did prior research into her sitters.[177] Rita Goold a physical medium during the 1980s was accused of fraud, by the psychical researcher Tony Cornell. He claimed she would dress up as the spirits in her séances and would play music during them which provided cover for her to change clothes.[178]
During the séance or trance period, note that as a medium you should not ask too many questions of the person you are helping. A good medium never asks the client to tell them the name of the deceased or any details; otherwise, it is not a valid reading. It is up to you to validate the deceased loved one's name, occupation in life, birth date, physical description, how they passed, and so on.
On Fox News on the Geraldo at Large show, October 6, 2007, Geraldo Rivera and other investigators accused Schwartz as a fraud as he had overstepped his position as a university researcher by requesting over three million dollars from a bereaved father who had lost his son. Schwartz claimed to have contacted the spirit of a 25-year-old man in the bathroom of his parents house and it is alleged he attempted to charge the family 3.5 million dollars for his mediumship services. Schwartz responded saying that the allegations were set up to destroy his science credibility.[197][198]
The British medium William Roy earned over £50,000 from his séance sitters. He confessed to fraud in 1958 revealing the microphone and trick-apparatus that he had used.[169] The automatic writings of the Irish medium Geraldine Cummins were analyzed by psychical researchers in the 1960s and they revealed that she worked as a cataloguer at the National Library of Ireland and took information from various books that would appear in her automatic writings about ancient history.[170] https://drive.google.com/file/d/1j9OXTL0I-NYzWv7GGPZjWvnWCNACHJFh/view?usp=sharing

Whatever your issues at the time, whether it’s love, job, finances, we have psychics specialising in different areas available at any time. We have you covered! You want to feel better right away? You are just a click away from a quality tarot card reading, or an astrology prediction that can look into your zodiac sign and tell you your next best move to take. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1idNaQusOoSjzRhGtxYx9g-JrLTE-Ruis/view?usp=sharing
Not everyone loves talking on the phone, and sometimes it’s just impractical: when you’re at work or in a public place, when you don’t want to be overheard, when you don’t want to take notes while you are getting your reading. Connecting with a psychic online can feel different from connecting over the phone. For some, it feels easier to initiate the first conversation using a familiar texting interface. You don’t connect through your voices, yet exchanging messages in real time can be very intimate and revealing. https://drive.google.com/file/d/18YO2snz0fXtN_HkHI8Ast2kdlek5r969/view?usp=sharing
Modern spiritualists and psychics keep detailed files on their victims. As might be expected, these files can be very valuable and are often passed on from one medium or psychic to another when one retires or dies. Even if a psychic doesn't use a private detective or have immediate access to driver's license records and such, there is still a very powerful technique that will allow the psychic to convince people that the psychic knows all about them, their problems, and their deep personal secrets, fears, and desires. The technique is called cold reading and is probably as old as charlatanism itself... If John Edward (or any of the other self-proclaimed speakers with the dead) really could communicate with the dead, it would be a trivial matter to prove it. All that would be necessary would be for him to contact any of the thousands of missing persons who are presumed dead—famous (e.g., Jimmy Hoffa, Judge Crater) or otherwise—and correctly report where the body is. Of course, this is never done. All we get, instead, are platitudes to the effect that Aunt Millie, who liked green plates, is happy on the other side.[195]
Physical mediumship is defined as manipulation of energies and energy systems by spirits. This type of mediumship is claimed to involve perceptible manifestations, such as loud raps and noises, voices, materialized objects, apports, materialized spirit bodies, or body parts such as hands, legs and feet. The medium is used as a source of power for such spirit manifestations. By some accounts, this was achieved by using the energy or ectoplasm released by a medium, see spirit photography.[26][27] The last physical medium to be tested by a committee from Scientific American was Mina Crandon in 1924.
The suffix Voyant in Clairvoyant does not necessarily imply seeing pictures, graphics or pictorial presentation as such. ‘Seeing’ may also mean  ‘understanding’ like in ‘Oh, I see!’ In this context the ability of the clairvoyant medium may also include clairsentience, which means that the clairvoyant medium clearly senses the things and the situations. He experiences a kind of gut feeling about what is going to happen or how a situation can be best tackled to provide good results. https://drive.google.com/file/d/17UQojyrl7O6fkq6Kst0Ez1DW7nRrvzS1/view?usp=sharing
In a series of experiments in London at the house of William Crookes in February 1875, the medium Anna Eva Fay managed to fool Crookes into believing she had genuine psychic powers. Fay later confessed to her fraud and revealed the tricks she had used.[74] Frank Herne a British medium who formed a partnership with the medium Charles Williams was repeatedly exposed in fraudulent materialization séances.[75] In 1875, he was caught pretending to be a spirit during a séance in Liverpool and was found "clothed in about two yards of stiffened muslin, wound round his head and hanging down as far as his thigh."[76] Florence Cook had been "trained in the arts of the séance" by Herne and was repeatedly exposed as a fraudulent medium.[77]

The medium Henry Slade was caught in fraud many times throughout his career. In a séance in 1876 in London Ray Lankester and Bryan Donkin snatched his slate before the "spirit" message was supposed to be written, and found the writing already there.[78] Slade also played an accordion with one hand under the table and claimed spirits would play it. The magician Chung Ling Soo revealed how Slade had performed the trick.[79]